10 May 1944

10 May 1944


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10 May 1944

Occupied Europe

The Free French announce that the resistance army now contains 175,000 people

Diplomacy

Churchill reveals details of the British aid to the Soviet Union

United States

Forrestal appointed as US Navy Secretary

Far East

Chinese troops launch an offensive on a 100 mile front on the Salween River (runs through China, Burma and Thailand)



The kette (three aircraft) involved, commanded by Leutnant Paul Seidel, were from 8. Staffel, Kampfgeschwader 51 "Edelweiss" (8./KG51) operating the Heinkel He 111 medium bomber. They had taken off at 14:27 from Landsberg-Lech Air Base, to bomb the French city of Dijon, or the alternative target Dole–Jura Airport, as part of the Battle of France. However, due to navigation errors they lost orientation and never arrived there. Although they were not able to determine their exact position, they were convinced of being on the other side of the Rhine and, in spite of the landmarks they saw, the town beneath them was thought to perhaps be Colmar, which is at a distance of only 22 miles. Since, on the other hand, the Freiburg Air Guard in Hilda Tower on the Loretto mountain identified the aircraft as German, it was only after the attack was already over that air raid warning was given. Starting from 15:59 the planes dropped a total of 69 bombs on the city. [1]

The German command tried to cover up the mistake and passed the bombing off as enemy action. The German media accepted that version without any hesitation. UFA Weekly Review, for example, reported in its issue no. 506 on 15 May 1940 at the end of a longer contribution of the "brutal and ruthless air raid on an unfortified German city". [2] The newspaper Freiburger Zeitung described it on 11 May 1940 as a "malicious air raid" [3] by the enemy. In the course of this "sneaky, cowardly air raid against all laws of humanity and international law", [3] the newspaper continued "24 civilians were overtaken by death". At the same time the incident was used to justify further attacks against the enemy. Thus, "any further planned bombing of the German population will be counteracted by five times as many German aircraft attacking an English or French town." [3] In a speech at the enterprise Borsig-Werke on 10 December 1940 Adolf Hitler accused the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to have started with "terrorist" attacks against the civilian population with the bombing of Freiburg. [4]

The pilots, for their part, declared to have attacked the secondary target Dole Tavaux. However, that declaration was made only later in the year. The claim that the duds of the attack were not German, had already been refuted by the time code. Nevertheless, the myth that foreign aircraft had bombed Freiburg had a long-standing basis. Background for this could have been memories of the air raids during World War I. Then Freiburg was bombed 25 times by allied aircraft. [5] Another factor might have been the shelling of Freiburg by French artillery on 11 and 13 June 1940. On that occasion shells fell on the southern Loretto mountain, Merzhausen, Günterstal, and the area around the airport as well as on the premises of the company Rhodia and the gasworks. This possibility of attack was eliminated by the advance of the German troops in France from 15 June 1940 onwards. [6]

Colonel Josef Kammhuber, at that time commander of KG51, alleged for a long time that it would never be possible to clarify who was responsible for the bombing of Freiburg on this day. In August 1980, however, he presented his knowledge regarding the bombing of Freiburg on 10 May 1940 to two military historians: "The fact that the attack on Freiburg was conducted mistakenly by a chain of III/KG51 is evident". [7] The German historians Anton Hoch, Wolfram Wette and Gerd R. Ueberschär contributed significantly to the clarification of the events on 10 May 1940. In consequence of their work the responsible persons could be identified in 1956. On 5 April 1956 The New York Times reported that the puzzle of who bombed Freiburg on 10 May 1940 had been solved. [8] On the Hilda playground in Freiburg's suburb Stühlinger next to which [9] 20 children were killed, [10] a memorial stone refers to the incident. The construction of the memorial stone was initiated by the Union of Persecutees of the Nazi Regime. On the 40th anniversary a preliminary plaque existing only for a short time was installed. It followed up the assumption that Freiburg was intentionally bombed by the German Air Force which was later disproved. [11] The present monument was dedicated on the 45th anniversary. The present inscription on the plaque is based on the findings of historical research about the event. [12] At the dedication of the memorial stone next to the spoke mayor Rolf Böhme as well as the chairman of the VVN and the chairman of the SPD local association of the suburb Stühlinger. [13]


Today in Tribe History: May 10, 1944

Indians pitcher Mel Harder earned career win number 200 as Cleveland knocked off the Boston Red Sox, 5-4.

Harder improved to 3-0 on the season with seven innings of work on the mound while becoming the 50th pitcher to reach the 200-win plateau. He had held the Red Sox scoreless until the eighth inning, when the top four batters in the order reached base and scored. Ed Klieman walked one batter in his two innings of relief replacing him.

Cleveland gave Harder a run in the third, three in the fifth, and one more in the seventh. Pat Seerey hit a solo shot, his third of the year, while Oris Hockett drove in two runs of his own. Roy Cullenbine and Ken Keltner rounded out the rest of the scoring with RBI hits.

Red Sox starter Pinky Woods went five innings and was hit with the loss, his second of the season, after allowing four runs on eight hits. Clem Hausmann, first man out of the ‘pen, allowed Seerey’s homer in the seventh.


10 Facts About The Warsaw Uprising (1944) You May Not Know

In the final days of World War II, the people of Poland found themselves between Nazi Germany and their old enemy the Russians. Brutally occupied by Nazi Germany since 1939, the prospects for their freedom looked very bleak indeed come 1944. Poland was faced with either Nazi rule or domination from Moscow. The Red Army army was now rapidly approaching from the East. Joseph Stalin&rsquos thirst for power and his strategy of absorbing countries into the Soviet Communist Bloc, persuaded many Poles that they would only exchange German for Soviet rule. Many Poles hoped by expelling the Germans before the Soviet army came that they could set up a free Polish State. The Poles were initially successful, but they received no support from the Soviets, who were not far from Warsaw. The Germans were able to repress the Uprising. Many believe that Stalin allowed the Germans to end the Uprising so that the anti-Communist forces in Poland would be weakened or destroyed. Moscow, later set up a communist puppet regime in Warsaw.

German troops in Warsaw

The anti-German and anti-Soviet forces in Poland was the Polish Home Army. These partisans were already fighting the Nazis and pro-Soviet partisans in Poland. They were both anti-Nazi and anti-Communist.

The Polish Home Army planned a rebellion, codenamed Operation Tempest: a huge, coordinated effort by the underground resistance across Poland, and it was the largest military operation by any resistance group in World War II.

The Home Army timed their uprising with the movements of the Red Army through Eastern Poland, with the hopes that they would receive some support.

Resident in Warsaw at the time claim that Russian planes that were heard constantly flying missions against the Germans in the weeks before, Operation Tempest. They stopped when the Uprising began and the entire Soviet army seemed to suddenly stop attacking the Germans.

Stalin had ordered his troops to halt their advance towards Germany. He even issued direct orders that all support for the Home Army&rsquos should stop and units in Russian-controlled areas should be disarmed.

Nevertheless, four days after Operation Tempest began on August 1 st , 1944, the Home Army controlled large areas in Warsaw and the fight was on for the liberation of the city. The Uprising was not as successful elsewhere in the country.

Many of the Polish resistance forces had been training in urban combat for years in preparation but weren&rsquot ready for a prolonged struggled against the ruthless German army and vicious SS troops.

The German&rsquos reaction to the uprising was brutal and was a War Crime. Hitler ordered the Waffen SS to commit indiscriminate executions of civilians of all ages and gender. By the end of the uprising, as many as 200,000 civilians were killed in and around Warsaw, during the Uprising. On one day, it is believed that SS troops murdered tens of thousands of civilians .

The Home Army had up to 50,000 fighters and activists. The Germans began with some 25,000 troops, which was soon increased with more reinforcements. They also sent many tanks to recapture the city.

After the defeat of the Polish Home Army. The Germans destroyed much of Warsaw in revenge and to punish the Poles. It is estimated that some 85% of the Polish capital was destroyed.


Nelson Mandela, South Africa’s first Black president, is inaugurated

In South Africa, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela is sworn in as the first Black president of South Africa. In his inaugural address, Mandela, who spent 27 years of his life as a political prisoner of the South African government, declared that “the time for the healing of the wounds has come.” Two weeks earlier, more than 22 million South Africans had turned out to cast ballots in the country’s first-ever multiracial parliamentary elections. An overwhelming majority chose Mandela and his African National Congress (ANC) party to lead the country.

Mandela, born in 1918, was the son of the chief of the Xhosa-speaking Tembu people. Instead of succeeding his father as chief, Mandela went to university and became a lawyer. In 1944, he joined the African National Congress (ANC), a਋lack political organization dedicated to winning rights for the Black majority in white-ruled South Africa. In 1948, the racist National Party came to power, and apartheid—South Africa’s institutionalized system of white supremacy and racial segregation�me official government policy. With the loss of਋lack rights under apartheid, black enrollment in the ANC rapidly grew. Mandela became one of the ANC’s leaders and in 1952 was made deputy national president of the ANC. He organized nonviolent strikes, boycotts, marches and other acts of civil disobedience.

After the massacre of peaceful਋lackꃞmonstrators at Sharpeville in 1960, Nelson helped organize a paramilitary branch of the ANC to engage in acts of sabotage against the white minority government. He was tried for and acquitted of treason in 1961 but in 1962 was arrested again for illegally leaving the country. Convicted and sentenced to five years at Robben Island Prison, he was put on trial again in 1963 with seven others on charges of sabotage, treason, and conspiracy. In the celebrated Rivonia Trial, named after the suburb of Johannesburg where ANC weapons were found, Mandela eloquently defended his actions. On June 12, 1964, he was sentenced to life imprisonment.

Mandela spent the first 18 of his 27 years in jail at the brutal Robben Island Prison. He was confined to a small cell without a bed or plumbing and was forced to do hard labor in a quarry. He could write and receive a letter once every six months, and once a year he was allowed to meet with a visitor for 30 minutes. However, Mandela’s resolve remained unbroken, and while remaining the symbolic leader of the anti-apartheid movement, he led a movement of civil disobedience at the prison that coerced South African officials into drastically improving conditions on Robben Island. In 1982 he was moved to Pollsmoor Prison on the mainland, and in 1988 to a cottage, where he lived under house arrest.

In 1989, F.W. de Klerk became South African president and set about dismantling apartheid. De Klerk lifted the ban on the ANC, suspended executions, and on February 11, 1990, ordered the release of Nelson Mandela. Mandela subsequently led the ANC in its negotiations with the minority government for an end to apartheid and the establishment of a multiracial government. In 1993, Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. On April 26, 1994, the country’s first free elections were won by Mandela and the ANC, and a “national unity” coalition was formed with de Klerk’s National Party and the Zulus’ Inkatha Freedom Party. On May 10, Mandela was inaugurated in a ceremony attended by numerous international dignitaries.

As president, Mandela established the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate human rights violations under apartheid and introduced numerous initiatives designed to improve the living standards of South Africa’s਋lack population. In 1996, he presided over the enactment of a new South African constitution. Mandela retired from politics in June 1999 at the age of 80. He was succeeded as president by Thabo Mbeki of the ANC, but remained a global advocate for peace and social justice until his death in December 2013.


This Chinese soldier, age 10, with heavy pack, is a member of an army division boarding a plane returning them to China, following the capture of Myitkyina airfield, Burma, under the allied command of US Major General Frank Merrill, May 1944. [1200x1479]

Anyone know the backstory? Is he the son of a commander? He's well dressed for a Chinese soldier, even ones equipped by the Allies. And one thing that wasn't in short supply by the Chinese, it wasn't men. They would join either/any army, if only to get food.

It's possible he's a 'mascot' of the regiment/unit, in the Soviet Union during WWII they had 'Sons of the Regiment' (Syn Polka) which were either children of the commanders of the regiment or often orphans they found along the way in towns they liberated from the Germans. They were often given a full little uniform, equipment and a weapon to carry and actually put on the regimental payroll, theyɽ also often given medals and awards, it was essentially a modern version of the regimental drummer boys of old. Most of them performed administrative functions like helping out around the camps, fetching and so on but some of them, especially amongst Partisan units, acted as Scouts and 'intelligence' gatherers whilst others were straight up getting into combat like Arkady Nikolayevich Kamanin who was the youngest pilot in WWII at the age of 14, his father was one of the first Heroes of the Soviet Union Nikolai Petrovich Kamanin (His fathers Hero of the Soviet Union medal is numbered 2, being the second Gold Star ever awarded) which is how he learnt to fly so young and got his position under his fathers command.

His kit is a child version of British Army Khaki Drill complete with 1937 Pattern Small Pack (Though his Small Pack looks like a small version of the Small Pack, so a Small-Small Pack) as demonstrated by these modern re-enactors in Hong Kong. It's probable he was part of the Chinese Expeditionary Force as some kind of mascot or unit helper which Chinese units tended to have whoɽ fetch and carry things, given his rather clean look and snazzy kit compared to the other boys he could be the son of one of the higher up commanders of the specific division and so is going home with his father, or possibly an orphan boy.


7. MAGINOT LINE and the FALL of FRANCE, 1940


Having apparently learned nothing from World War One, the French set about creating an impenetrable line of fixed defenses on its border with Germany guaranteed to keep the Huns at bay. Called the Maginot line, it proved to be every bit as formidable as advertised the problem was it didn’t go all the way to the coast, leaving a hundred mile wide gap that the Germans were able to plow through with relative ease in the spring of 1940, thereby encircling the British and French Armies in Belgium and handing the French a humiliating defeat that they don’t like to talk about to this day. Debate rages whether the Maginot Line would have stopped the Germans even if it had been complete, but considering how much warfare had changed since the trench warfare of World War One, it probably would only have slowed them down. Once the Germans breached it at any point, most likely the results would have been the same—just a little later in being realized.


The Grass Burr (Weatherford, Tex.), No. 16, Ed. 1 Wednesday, May 10, 1944

Bi-weekly student newspaper of Weatherford High School in Weatherford, Texas that includes school news and information along with advertising.

Physical Description

ten pages : ill. page 16 x 12 in. Scanned from physical pages.

Creation Information

Creator: Unknown. May 10, 1944.

Context

This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Rescuing Texas History, 2017 and was provided by the Weatherford High School to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 23 times, with 4 in the last month. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this newspaper or its content.

Creator

Publisher

Audiences

Check out our Resources for Educators Site! We've identified this newspaper as a primary source within our collections. Researchers, educators, and students may find this issue useful in their work.

Provided By

Weatherford High School

In 1875, the Weatherford High School Association was formed. The first five students graduated in 1885, receiving certificates of completion. In 1894, the first Weatherford High School diplomas were awarded. Weatherford Independent School District was formed in 1954, and the first high school was built. The present campus, opened in January 2003, serves approximately 1,850 students with over 150 faculty and staff members.


The 10 Greatest Tank Battles In Military History

Ever since the first armored vehicles crawled across the tortured battlescapes of World War I, tanks have become an indelible fixture of land warfare. Many tank-on-tank engagements have occurred over the years, some more significant — and epic — than others. Here are 10 you need to know about.

Top image: An Iraqi tank burns during Operation Desert Storm in 1991.

Battles listed in chronological order.

1. The Battle of Cambrai (1917)

Fought in late 1917, this Western Front battle was the first great tank battle in military history and the first great use of combined arms on a large scale, marking a true turning point in the history of warfare. As historian Hew Strachan notes, "the biggest single intellectual shift in making war between 1914 and 1918 was that the combined-arms battle was planned around the capabilities of the guns rather than of the infantry." And by combined, Strachan is referring to the coordinated use of sustained and creeping artillery, infantry, aircraft, and, of course, tanks.

On November 20, 1917 the British attacked at Cambrai with 476 tanks, 378 of them being combat tanks. The horrified Germans were caught completely by surprise as the offensive carved out a 4,000-yard penetration along a six-mile front. It was an unprecedented breakthrough in an otherwise static siege war. The Germans eventually recovered after launching counter-attacks, but the tank-led offensive demonstrated the incredible potential of mobile, mechanized warfare — a lesson that was put to good use just a year later in the final push towards Germany.

2. The Battle of Khalkhin Gol (1939)

The first great tank battle of the Second World War pitted the Soviet Red Army against the Japanese Imperial Army along the Mongolian and Siberian border. Set within the context of the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945, Japan claimed that the Khalkhin Gol marked the border between Mongolia and Manchukuo (its name for occupied Manchuria), while the Soviets insisted on a border lying further to the east through Nomonhan (which is why this engagement is sometimes referred to as the Nomonhan Incident). Hostilities ensued in May 1939 when Soviet troops occupied the disputed territory.

Captured Japanese soldiers (photo: Victor A. Tёmyn)

After some initial Japanese success, the Soviets countered with 58,000 troops, nearly 500 tanks, and some 250 aircraft. On the Morning of August 20, General Georgy Zhukov launched a surprise attack after feigning a defensive posture. As the brutal day unfolded, the heat became oppressive, reaching 104 degrees F (40 degrees Celsius), causing machine guns and cannons to jam. The Soviets' T-26s tanks (a precursor to the highly effective T-34s) outmatched the obsolete Japanese tanks, whose guns lacked armour piercing shells. But the Japanese fought desperately, including a dramatic moment in which Lieutenant Sadakaji charged a tank with his samurai sword until he was cut down.

The ensuing Russian encirclement allowed for the complete annihilation of General Komatsubara's force, resulting in 61,000 casualties. The Red Army, by contrast, suffered 7,974 killed and 15,251 wounded. The battle marked the beginning of Zhukov's illustrious military leadership during the war, while demonstrating the importance of deception, and technological and numerical superiority in tank warfare.

11 Secret Weapons Developed By Japan During World War 2

Normally, it's the Western Powers who are remembered for developing some of the most innovative and

3. The Battle of Arras (1940)

Not to be confused with the 1917 Battle of Arras, this Second World War engagement featured the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) against the German Blitzkrieg as it advanced rapidly towards the French coast.

Rommel, pictured at center, mistakenly thought he was being attacked by five infantry divisions during the Battle of Arras. (Bundesarchiv, Bild)

On May 20, 1940 the BEF's Viscount Gort ordered a counterattack, codenamed Frankforce, on the Germans. It involved two infantry battalions amounting to 2,000 men — and just 74 tanks. The BBC describes what happened next :

The infantry battalions were split into two columns for the attack, which took place on 21 May. The right column initially made rapid progress, taking a number of German prisoners, but they soon ran into German infantry and SS, backed by air support, and took heavy losses.

The left column also enjoyed early success before running into opposition from the infantry units of Brigadier Erwin Rommel's 7th Panzer Division.

French cover enabled British troops to withdraw to their former positions that night. Frankforce was over, and the next day the Germans regrouped and continued their advance.

Frankforce took around 400 German prisoners and inflicted a similar number of casualties, as well as destroying a number of tanks. The operation had punched far beyond its weight — the attack was so fierce that 7th Panzer Division believed it had been attacked by five infantry divisions.

Interestingly, some historians believe this ferocious counterattack was what convinced the German generals to declare a halt on May 24 — a short break in the Blitzkrieg that allowed the BEF some added time to evacuate its troops during the Miracle at Dunkirk.

10 Shocking Ways the Second World War Could Have Ended Differently

Decisions during wartime are monumental things. Each move and countermove has the potential to…


Flak unit at Quimper (France) railway station / May-June 1944)

Post by Tredaou » 23 Apr 2021, 10:37

Any idea of the unit(s) which were to protect the Bahnhof Quimper (Railway Station) around May and June 1944? If there was an anti-aircraft (Flak) unit, a Zug I guess, dedicated to protect the railway tracks? I also though of a paratrooper unit (Fallschirmjäger), so perhaps also a return fire from this German unit. I am currently working on the loss of a Spitfire which was hit around this city on June 1, 1944 and which crashed further away, towards Lorient. Thank you for your thoughts on this matter.

Re: Flak unit at Quimper (France) railway station / May-June 1944)

Post by Larry D. » 24 Apr 2021, 20:51

I just finished checking my Luftwaffen-Flakartillerie files and did not find anything. As you know, the Luftwaffe had inactivated the landing ground at Quimper in 1943, leaving only a small custodial detachment there of 12 - 24 men. So the only thing I can think of might be a railway Flak unit from one of the 6 Flak-Abt. (Eis.) or (ETr.) that belonged to Flak-Rgt. 159 (ETr.), the Stab of which was located in Paris-Neuilly from July 1943 to August 1944 and controlled the railway Flak in West France, including Brittany. The railway Flak units commanded by the Regiment had claimed 300 Allied aircraft shot down by 14 June 1944.

Re: Flak unit at Quimper (France) railway station / May-June 1944)

Post by Tredaou » 25 Apr 2021, 08:35

Your idea is the most probable, since the report mentions that the Spitfire was hit in the vicinity of Quimper and that they were flying over the railroad tracks during their mission. In fact, a few minutes earlier they had attacked a train and destroyed its locomotive further north of that city (between Brest and Quimper).


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