History of Rondo II - History

History of Rondo II - History

Rondo II

(Id. No. 2488: dp. 15,300,1. 468' b. 55'11", dr. 28'6" (mean);
dph. 35'7"; s. 12 k.; cpl. 70; a. 1 5", 1 3")

The second Rondo was launched during 1914 by Rotterdam DroogDock Maatsehappij as a steel freighter for the Nederland Stoomvaart Maatsehappij and interned during World War I at New York. She was seized during March1918 bv customs officials along with 88 other Duteh ships, 31 of which entered U.S. naval service. Rondo was commissioned 28 March1918 for service in the Naval Overseas Transportation Service Lt. Comdr. Paul C. Grening, USNRF, in command.

Departing New York 12 April 1918, Rondo steamed to Norfolk to load Army supplies for U.S. forces in Europe. Rondo subsequently made two round-trip convoy voyages across the Atlantie between 7 May and 5 September 1918, unloading cargo at La Palliee, Verdon, and Bordeaux, France.

Rondo was fitted for service as a horse transport during September 1918 under U.S. Shipping Board account. As an animal transport, she made one voyage to Montevideo, Uruguay, arriving 16 February 1919. Returning northward to Boston to unload her cargo, Rondo was later assigned duty carrying food to Europe. After engine trouble onee forced her back into port, Rondo reached Falmouth, England, 28 May 1919. Steaming on to Amsterdam, Rondo was decommissioned and returned to her owner 21 June 1919. Rondo remained in Nederland Stoomvaart Maatsehappij service until scrapped during 1933.


A brief overview of queer and trans history in Minnesota

There have always been people in Minnesota, as in the rest of the world, who have lived outside perceived norms of gender and sexuality the words used to name them have changed over time.

The identities in the LGBTQIA acronym — lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual — are relatively recent inventions. This might at first suggest that people representing each of those categories did not exist before the development of the terms themselves. But there have always been people in Minnesota, as in the rest of the world, who have lived outside perceived norms of gender and sexuality the words used to name them have just changed over time.

The LGBTQIA history of the North Star State, then, is also a history of language and tradition, and of the variations in gender and sexuality that have been (in)visible in different eras.

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Indigenous identities

Before settler-colonists came to present-day Minnesota, Indigenous people understood variations in gender and sexuality in the contexts of their own languages and lifeways. As a result, the identities they claimed were culturally specific. For the many Native people who claim them today, they still are. Though they overlap in some ways with European American terms like gay and transgender, they are not equivalents of those words, and they exist on their own terms.

Dakota and Ojibwe traditions both make room for gender-non-normative and same-sex-oriented people, and they often support identities that combine gender identity with sexual orientation. Historically, Dakota men who took on women’s roles were called wiŋkte or wiŋkta, an abbreviation of wiŋyanktehca (ones who act like women). Their ability to blend masculinity and femininity made them wakan — sacred — in the eyes of their relatives. Wiŋkte performed special spiritual and ceremonial work, for which they received respect. Many served their communities as warriors and through prayer, prophecy, and naming children. A similar identity existed among the Ho-Chunk, a related nation with later ties to Minnesota.

Ojibwe ikwekaazowag (ones who endeavor to act like women) and ininiikaazowag (ones who endeavor to act like men) had same-sex spouses and, like wiŋkte, were considered sacred. Related Ojibwe words include ogichidaakwe (warrior woman) and agokwa (sometimes translated man-woman also spelled ayaakwe). An agokwa named Ozaawindib (Yellow Head) wielded military and political power as a leader of the Cass Lake Ojibwe in the early 1800s.

Ozaawindib led Ojibwe warriors in battle but also negotiated during periods of conflict. She had multiple husbands, including a man named Wenji-dotagaan, and she guided Henry Schoolcraft’s expedition to the source of the Mississippi River in 1832. Her legacy is written into Minnesota place names, including Ozaawindibe-Zaaga’igan (Ozaawindib Lake, also known as Lake Plantagenet) and Ozaawindibe-Ziibi (the Ozaawindib River, also known as the Schoolcraft River).

(Native people did not use the English phrase Two-Spirit, an umbrella term inspired by traditional identities that crosses boundaries of culture and nation, until the 1990s. See “Queer and Trans Futures,” below.)

(In)visible deviance, 1858–1920

As settler-colonists moved into Minnesota Territory in the 1850s, their rigidly binary thinking displaced Indigenous sex and gender systems. They expected people recognized as male at birth to be men, as well as masculine they expected people labeled female at birth to be women, as well as feminine. Men, meanwhile, were supposed to have sex only with women, and vice versa. But in spite of these expectations, for much of the nineteenth century, settler-colonists assigned few labels to people who transgressed their norms. The modern concepts of gender identity and sexual orientation did not yet exist, so the gender of your romantic partners did not mark you as a “type” of person (straight or gay or bisexual). Neither did the relationship of your assigned sex to your understanding of your gender (transgender or cisgender).

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Because of this lack of identity labels, it can be hard to find the forerunners of LGBTQIA Minnesotans in the written record. Between 1858 and 1920, however, people who might identify today as trans, queer, and/or intersex are visible in the surviving letters, memoirs, newspaper articles, and court records that describe their behavior without labeling their identities.

One crucial incident in trans American history unfolded in Meeker County in 1858, the same year in which Minnesota became a state. During a trial held in the farming colony of Forest City, seven miles outside of Litchfield, a judge considered the case of Joseph Israel Lobdell, a homesteader accused by the Meeker County attorney of “impersonating a man.” Lobdell had been assigned a female sex at birth but had presented himself as a man since 1854. The judge ruled in Lobdell’s favor and cleared him of the criminal charge, pointing out that ancient laws (including the Code of Justinian) had granted women the right to dress as men.

After the Lobdell trial, gender variance in Minnesota was visible during the Civil War, when some women presented themselves as men in order to fight with the Union Army. Some seized the opportunity to express their masculinity others wanted to act on their patriotism or to follow family members into battle. Frances Clayton enlisted at St. Paul in 1862 and reportedly fought in eighteen battles, including the Battle of Shiloh. Mary McDonald of Sibley County signed up to be an orderly in a regiment of mounted rangers at Fort Snelling in 1862. And Mary W. Dennis, after growing up in Stillwater, joined the Second Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment in 1863.

Minnesotans like Clayton, McDonald, and Dennis endured public scrutiny, publicity, and sometimes invasions of privacy for their gender presentation in the 1860s. But they did not face legal challenges or criminal charges, as Lobdell had. That window of freedom narrowed in the decades after the Civil War, when doctors and psychiatrists created a field called sexology — the scientific study of sex. Sexologists in Europe and then the US published studies that linked criminal behavior with sex(ual) and gender variance, leading authorities to police people seen as outside the norm.

Minneapolis entered the fray in 1877 when it adopted an ordinance criminalizing cross dressing. This regulation threatened gender-variant people with punishment, but it also made them more visible in the media. In November and December of 1880, Minnesota newspapers followed the case of Leon A. Belmont, a medical student assigned a female sex at birth and accused of “falsely” presenting himself as a man while carrying on romances with two different women in Minneapolis (he married a third woman in Isanti County in 1881). A similar episode played out in St. Paul in 1885 when newspapers reported on Cecelia Regina Gonzaga, an African American assigned a male sex at birth who’d been arrested by police for walking on the city’s streets dressed as a woman.

Articles about Belmont and Gonzaga raised the possibility that they were hermaphrodites — an often offensive word used at the time to describe people who might identify today as intersex (not typed as solely male or female in their genitalia, gonads, and/or genes). Like the queer and trans stories with which it intersects, intersex history in this period often involved prejudice and could lead to “corrective” surgery. In 1889, at a farm outside Newport in Washington County, a relief agent discovered a Polish immigrant family abusing a nine-year-old child “of neither sex.” The agent intervened and, according to the St. Paul Globe, took the child to a hospital for “an operation…in hopes of bettering its condition.”

Since sodomy was illegal in Minnesota throughout the 1800s, some of the men who had sex with men in this period appear in the written record in court documents. Not every sodomy case points to a real sexual act — some plaintiffs undoubtedly made up stories in order to attack their enemies — but the frequency of the charge shows that Minnesotan men thought of same-sex intercourse as, at least, a viable possibility. Police and the courts processed sodomy cases in, for example, Clay County in 1878 Olmsted County in 1880 Washington County in 1887 Ramsey County in 1883, 1887, and 1889 Dakota County in 1902 and Beltrami County in 1912 and 1913. In the 1889 Ramsey County case, the accused was a Chinese immigrant who operated a laundry business in St. Paul. Newspapers gave special attention to stories that paired sex with alleged violent crime, like the 1905 murder of Johnny Keller by William Williams.

Evidence of women who had sex with women in Minnesota before 1920 is less explicit, but still plentiful. State laws did not identify such sex acts as crimes, and some men did not think of them as sex at all. But in the absence of social scrutiny, women still formed bonds with one another that involved romance, intimacy, and sexual fulfillment. These romantic partnerships could last for decades and lead to joint households and co-parenting. Library director Gratia Alta Countryman, for example, lived in Minneapolis with her partner, Marie Todd, for thirty-eight years, beginning in 1902, and the two women raised a son together. While living in Faribault as the wife (and later widow) of the Episcopal Bishop of Minnesota between 1896 and 1910, Evangeline Simpson Whipple wrote letters to her former lover, Rose Cleveland, with whom she eventually reunited. Botanist Eloise Butler and University of Minnesota doctor Ruth Boynton, both of Minneapolis, also had romantic partnerships with women at different stages of their lives.

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Naming identities, building communities, 1920–1968

Beginning in about 1920, Minnesotans and other Americans began to think of a person’s choice of sexual partners as evidence of an identity that could be named. It happened as sexology filtered down to laypeople, who began using the words “homosexual,” “heterosexual,” and “lesbian.” This shared vocabulary provided new ways for queer and trans people to find each other in the middle decades of the twentieth century, and to build businesses, neighborhoods, and groups based on affinity.

By the mid-1920s, the population density of the Twin Cities supported bars, theaters, transit stations, and other public spaces in which queer people could gather. Men seeking sex with other men met at the Hennepin Baths in Minneapolis as early as 1925, and then at bars like the Onyx and the Dugout in the 1930s. In St. Paul, queer men and some women congregated at the Garrick Theater, Bremer Arcade, Coney Island Cafe, Kirmser’s Bar, and the Union Bus Depot. Bars catering more exclusively to women followed in the 1950s, including the Holland Bar and the Jitterbug Inn in Minneapolis and Honey’s Barn in Shoreview, run by community icon Honey Harold. Since many white businesspeople discriminated against customers of color, queer African Americans created spaces of their own—especially parties hosted in private homes in St. Paul’s Rondo neighborhood.

As urban communities grew, new opportunities for same-sex relationships and gender variance also arose in rural Minnesota. The state’s core industries of milling, mining, and logging brought together scores of young men, often outside of cities, and confined them in close quarters away from women. These same-sex settings developed unique dynamics. At one logging camp in Koochiching County in the early 1920s, a man in charge of cooking meals routinely wore a dress, an apron, and make-up. The camp’s foreman matter-of-factly described him without objection as “a man who wears women’s clothing.” During the same period, a cook working for the Virginia-Rainy Lake Company in St. Louis County dressed sometimes as a man and sometimes as a woman, again without incident.

In similar work settings in Minnesota — the US Army and the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), for example — gender variance and same-sex activity were also not uncommon. In the 1930s, two members of Company 716 at a CCC camp near Tofte (Cook County) appeared in a recreation hall in drag, prompting their co-workers to suggest putting on a drag-based musical show. At Fort Snelling during World War II, men admired attractive new recruits so openly that the post’s induction center became known as a “seduction station.” Others, like conservationist Ernest Oberholtzer, pursued lives outside the norm by creating spaces for themselves. Oberholtzer moved to an island in Rainy Lake in 1922 to pursue a life of self-sufficiency and might have identified as queer, asexual, or a combination of the two if he had lived in the twenty-first century.

The concept of sexual orientation empowered people to find each other. At the same time, however, it enabled society to segregate, discipline, and punish the people it had just named. Officials at prisons and reform schools singled out women for extra surveillance when they expressed masculinity or had sexual relationships with each other. In spite of this opposition, prisoners built networks of love and resistance that spanned decades. At the State Reformatory for Women in Shakopee in 1935, staff punished Marie Carey for sending notes to her girlfriend and diagnosed her with a “split personality.” She attempted to escape with another prisoner, Mildred Strain, whom staff had identified as a “sexual pervert.” Beginning in 1941, Strain had a relationship with Edna Larrabee and gave her a gold watch in defiance of prison policy. Larrabee, in turn, earned the disapproval of the prison superintendent and the label “psychopathic deviate” [sic]. She and Beulah Brunelle (Turtle Mountain Ojibwe) escaped from Shakopee together in 1949 and lived as a married couple.

“Transsexual,” a forerunner of the word “transgender,” entered widespread use in the 1950s. Used to describe a person who alters their sex characteristics to align with their gender identity, the word offered some gender-non-conforming people a new way to name themselves. The University of Minnesota, meanwhile, emerged in the 1960s as a center of trans medicine. The school’s Transsexual Research Project, launched by Dr. Donald W. Hastings in 1966, followed trans women as they prepared for sex-reassignment surgery (later called gender-confirmation or -affirmation surgery) and gathered data to improve medical treatment. The project empowered many people, like the sisters Lenette and Lauraine Lee, to start new lives. But it was not without its failings. Decades later, participants remembered painful surgical complications and called out Hastings for disrespecting his trans patients.

Gay liberation and HIV/AIDS, 1969–1994

Historians of sexuality credit multiple events — among them the riot at Compton’s Cafeteria in San Francisco (1966), protests at the Black Cat Tavern in Los Angeles (1967), and uprisings at New York City’s Stonewall Inn (1969) — with ushering in an era of gay liberation in the United States. The movement, which attracted mainstream attention in the 1970s, built on the work of organizers who had been active since the 1950s. Many of them embraced the word “gay” and rejected the more clinical-sounding “homosexual” as a relic of the past. They drew inspiration from other 1960s social movements, including the American Indian Movement, women’s liberation, El Movimiento, and Black Power, that aimed to uplift marginalized people through political protest.

In Minnesota, a turning point arrived on May 18, 1969, when University of Minnesota graduate students Koreen Phelps and Stephen Ihrig founded Fight Repression of Erotic Expression (FREE) in Minneapolis. It was the first gay rights organization in the state. For three years, the group hosted dances, presented lectures, organized police trainings, and published a newsletter in order to “change the laws, attitudes, and prejudices of uptight, upright heterosexual America.” Students of Carleton College in Northfield brought attention to the movement in the same year by founding the Northfield Gay Liberation Front. Even the phrase “gay pride” caught on in part because of a Minnesotan: Thom Higgins, the writer and FREE activist who later protested anti-gay campaigner Anita Bryant by throwing a pie in her face.

Two events put Minnesota at the center of a national conversation about gay rights in the early 1970s. FREE’s president, Jack Baker, departed from other gay liberationists (including many in FREE) by prioritizing marriage as a political issue. When he applied for a marriage license with his boyfriend, Michael McConnell, in 1970, Hennepin County denied the couple’s application. Their subsequent lawsuit led to the 1971 US Supreme Court case Baker v. Nelson, which denied the couple’s constitutional right to marry. State senator Allan Spear attracted additional national attention in 1974 when he identified himself as gay in an interview with the Minneapolis Star. The announcement made him the first openly gay person to serve in a state legislature in the US.

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Alongside Baker’s activism and Spear’s coming out, Minnesota organizations established in the 1970s brought gay and lesbian issues into state politics. The Minnesota Committee for Gay Rights (MCGR), founded by Steven Endean and Jean-Nickolaus Tretter in Minneapolis, lobbied local businesses for support and pressured politicians to reveal their stances on gay issues. In the social services sector, Gay Community Services and the Gay and Lesbian Community Action Council (GLCAC) tackled similar advocacy issues while coordinating education, counseling, and outreach. GLCAC’s 1988 community needs assessment Out and Counted: A Survey of the Twin Cities Lesbian and Gay Community (also known as the Northstar survey) provided crucial data about the needs of constituents in Minneapolis and St. Paul.

At the same time political organizers were agitating for gay liberation, distinctly Minnesotan gay, lesbian, and trans cultures were emerging in bookstores, newspapers, libraries, theaters, and resource centers across the Twin Cities. Among them were Amazon Bookstore (founded in 1970 and fondly satirized as Madwimmin Books in Alison Bechdel’s comic “Dykes to Watch Out For”) the Lesbian Resource Center (1972) At the Foot of the Mountain Theater (1976) Northland Companion/Positively Gay (1978), which evolved into the GLC Voice (1979) A Brother’s Touch (1983) Quatrefoil (1986) and Patrick’s Cabaret (1986). Organizers put on the first Twin Cities Pride celebration in 1972, and similar annual events emerged over the next several decades in Duluth–Superior, Rochester, Fargo–Moorhead, Golden Valley, Mankato, Brainerd, and Pine City.

The cultural outpouring wasn’t limited to cities. Lesbian feminists, for example, started communal farms in rural areas (e.g., Aitkin County’s Rising Moon) that brought together women from across the Midwest. The bear subculture, meanwhile, built on traditions of male-male intimacy in rural environments like logging camps to celebrate the rugged attractiveness of hairy, working-class, often large men. In parallel, the radical faeries movement found a foothold in Minnesota when queer men established Kawashaway Sanctuary in the north woods.

Progress toward liberation, however, was not unbroken. When Minneapolis resident Bruce Brockway started feeling sick in the summer of 1981, he could tell it was more than a run-of-the-mill illness. Brockway, who had founded Positively Gay and organized a task force to settle gay Cuban refugees in Minnesota, had just heard about a mysterious new disease affecting men who had sex with men in cities like New York and San Francisco. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) named the affliction Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome—AIDS—a year later, and identified its cause as a virus that attacked the human immune system, eventually named HIV.

A June 1982 diagnosis confirmed Brockway’s fears: he had the first documented case of HIV/AIDS in Minnesota. He responded by founding the Minnesota AIDS Project (MAP), a community organization that began serving HIV-positive Minnesotans. After he died in 1985, others continued his work, including doctors at the state’s HIV/AIDS clinic at St. Paul–Ramsey Medical Center. Volunteers organized the first annual AIDS Trek bike-ride fundraiser through Greater Minnesota in 1986, and in 1989, members of ACT-UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) Minnesota protested in support of sex education at a high school in Mora (Kanabec County). Events that united Minnesotans in collective mourning, such as the NAMES Project Memorial Quilt Display (1988), brought moments of comfort in the midst of an epidemic that continued to devastate local communities through the mid-1990s. Among the thousands lost was Brian Coyle (1944–1991), the Moorhead-raised Minneapolis City Council member who had been one of the first public figures in the nation to share his HIV-positive diagnosis.

Queer and trans futures, 1994–Present

Just as gay Baby Boomers had rejected the labels and orthodoxies of their elders in the 1970s, in the 1990s a new generation stepped forward to change the terms of the conversation about sex(ual) and gender variance. At the forefront of the new movement was the word “queer,” a once-derogatory slur now reclaimed by young people frustrated by the limits of “gay” and “lesbian.” It gained visibility in Minnesota in 1994, when Minneapolis organizers followed the lead of AIM Patrol and tasked on-the-street volunteers with protecting community members from police abuse. They called their team of peacekeepers Queer Street Patrol.

Queer organizers called attention to groups that the mainstream gay rights movement had failed to support in the 1970s and 1980s, especially because of racism. Queer Native Americans in particular struggled for recognition in a settler-colonial society that insisted on both whiteness and a rigid gender binary. In order to unite Native people representing diverse nations, languages, and gender traditions, one group in Winnipeg settled on the English phrase “two spirit” in 1990 to reflect the coexistence of male/masculine and female/feminine traits in their identities. The term caught on, and by the mid-1990s it was visible in the names of events, organizations, and publications across the US. Minnesota hosted the annual Two Spirit Gathering (a national outgrowth of a 1988 Minneapolis event) multiple times, including once in Onamia in 1997 and again in Sandstone in 2008. In 2005, when Minneapolis-based Yupik artist and activist Anguksuar (Richard LaFortune) started an organization to educate the media about Native gender identities and sexual orientations, he chose the name Two Spirit Press Room.

Another Minneapolis resident with whom the Two-Spirit concept resonated was Nicholas Metcalf (Cetaŋzi Yellow Hawk), a Sicaŋgu Lakota student originally from South Dakota. Metcalf and a Korean American gay man named Edd Lee collaborated in 1998 to found Minnesota Men of Color, a non-profit that delivered social services to queer and gender-non-conforming populations overlooked by majority-white LGBTQ providers. Across the river, in St. Paul, Phia Xiong and Xeng Lor set up Shades of Yellow (SOY) in 2003 to focus on the needs of queer Hmong Minnesotans.

Many Minnesotans addressing racial inequity worked to highlight the T and the B of LGBT at a time when white gays and lesbians were receiving the most attention. Bisexual trans people, who experience biphobia and transphobia at the same time, stood at the front of overlapping movements to center bisexuality and trans identity. The Bisexual Empowerment Conference, A Uniting Supportive Experience (BECAUSE) convened for the first time in Minneapolis in 1992. Organized by a coalition that included members of the Bisexual Connection, a potluck group for bi women active since about 1989, BECAUSE led to the creation in 1999 of the Bisexual Organizing Project (BOP) and intersected with the cable-access TV program BiCities.

The case of CeCe McDonald, an African American bi and trans woman who defended herself from a transphobic attack outside a Minneapolis bar in 2011, raised public awareness of the vulnerability of Black trans women in Minnesota. Recognizing the dangers of a trial, McDonald pleaded guilty to second-degree manslaughter in 2012, was sentenced to 41 months imprisonment, and served 19 months. When she was denied gender-affirming health care and held in a men’s prison, supporters instigated an advocacy campaign. McDonald herself became a trans-rights activist, working with public figures like Minnesotan poet/politician Andrea Jenkins. Jenkins, a former Minneapolis City Council policy aide, led the Transgender Oral History Project at the University of Minnesota’s Tretter collection between 2015 and 2018. In 2017, when voters elected her and Phillipe Cunningham to the Minneapolis City Council, they became the first two Black and trans people to hold public office in the US.

LGBTQIA Minnesotans and their allies mobilized in 2011 after a senate bill (SF 1308) added a marriage referendum to the 2012 election ballot. The referendum asked voters to respond “yes” or “no” to the question, “Shall the Minnesota Constitution be amended to provide that only a union of one man and one woman shall be valid or recognized as a marriage in Minnesota?” The proposed measure became known as Minnesota Amendment 1. Critics included state representatives Scott Dibble and Karen Clark, a political veteran who in 1993 had succeeded alongside Allan Spear in amending the Minnesota Human Rights Act to protect gender identity and sexual orientation. In part because of Dibble’s and Clark’s advocacy and that of Minnesotans United for All Families (a joint effort of Project 515 and Outfront Minnesota), a majority of voters voted “no” in 2012, and Minnesota became the first and only state to reject a “same-sex marriage” ban through the will of voters rather than a court ruling. In 2013, the legislature approved, and the governor signed, a bill that extended the right to marry to same-sex couples.

At the start of the 2020s, queer and trans Minnesota youth carried on the work of their elders by rejecting existing language and embracing a more inclusive vocabulary. They called attention to overlooked dimensions of sex(ual) and gender variance by popularizing the words pansexual, non-binary, gender fluid, polysexual, and aromantic. And they consistently connected gender and sexuality with race, recognizing a need for solidarity with movements like Black Lives Matter. At a Lyon County school board meeting in 2020, for example, young people defended the school’s hanging of a rainbow flag with trans-positive and anti-racist stripes in the cafeteria of Marshall Middle School. And in Sherburne County in 2021, students walked out of Becker High School in order to protest racism and homophobia alongside other teens across the state.

For more information on this topic, check out the original entry on MNopedia.

Lizzie Ehrenhalt

Lizzie Ehrenhalt, the editor of MNopedia, is a public historian who specializes in the history of gender and sexuality. She has a master’s degree in archives management from the University of Michigan, a master’s certificate in museum studies from the University of Michigan, and a bachelor’s degree in gender studies and Latin from Oberlin College. She is a co-editor of Precious and Adored: The Love Letters of Rose Cleveland and Evangeline Whipple, 1890‒1918 (Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2019). Her article “‘Curious and Romantic Sensation'”: Sex, Fraud, and Celebrity in the Leon A. Belmont Case of 1880″ appeared in Minnesota History 67, no. 5 (Spring 2021).


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Before studying Minnesota, think about what Minne­sota means to you. What makes our state unique? Learn how exploring our history, geography, govern­ment, and economy teaches us the stories of Minnesota’s past.

Interesting Facts about Minnesota
An online resource with facts and information about Minnesota using maps to tell the stories. This StoryMap uses ESRI's ArcGIS Online Story Map platform.

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Created by the Minnesota Secretary of State's Office, this webpage contains general statistics about Minnesota, including population, education and more. Students conducting research about Minnesota today could find helpful information on this webpage.

Minnesota State Symbols Game
This simple picture game tests knowledge related to Minnesota's state symbols. Use this game to introduce students to aspects of Minnesota's shared culture and history.

Minnesota State Symbols
The Minnesota Legislative Reference Library created this webpage, containing images and descriptions of all official state symbols, along with links to related resources. Start the school year off by having students fill in an outline of the state with the symbols they think are most important or their favorites. Bonus: teachers can use the illustrations to decorate the classroom!

Life in Minnesota today is very different than it was for people living here thousands of years ago. Explore how storytelling and physical evidence help people understand how others lived in the past.

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Gibbs Farm
Gibbs Farm is a historic site interpreting pioneer and Dakota life in the mid-1800s. Schoolchildren will learn from costumed interpreters about Jane and Heman Gibbs and their children, their relationship with the Dakota of Cloud Man’s village, and the history of the farm. Gibbs Farm, located in Falcon Heights, has field trip options from May-October and offers classroom outreach from November-March. It is operated by the Ramsey County Historical Society.

Bdote Memory Map
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Native American Artist-in-Residence: Gwen Westerman
Ribbonwork artist Gwen Westerman shares her experiences as a Native American Artist-in-Residence (NAAIR) at the Minnesota Historical Society.

Seth Eastman: Depictions of Native American Life Primary Source Set
This primary source set created by the Minnesota Digital Library includes:

  • a topic overview
  • ten to twenty primary sources
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  • a teaching guide which includes classroom discussion questions and activities.

U.S.-Dakota War of 1862
This website shares historical background, a timeline of events, public programs, books links to photos, documents and artifacts relating to the U.S. Dakota War of 1862.

Hundreds of years ago, the Ojibwe migrated west along the Great Lakes and settled in what is now Minnesota and Wisconsin. Learn about Ojibwe traditions and ways of life that changed with the seasons.

Native American Artist-in-Residence: Pat Kruse
Pat Kruse participated in the Native American Artist-in-Residence program in 2014. Watch to him talk about his birchbark art and see demonstrations.

Native American Artist-in-Residence: Jessica Gokey
Jessica Gokey participated in the Native American Artist-in-Residence program in 2014. Listen to her talk about her beadwork.

Nenda-gikendamang ningo-biboonagak
"We Seek to Learn Throughout the Year" is an introduction to Ojibwe language through graphics and games from the Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission.

Mille Lacs Indian Museum Field Trip
Teach your students about the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe. For hundreds of years, the band has lived near one of Minnesota's largest lakes. Play games band members played. Discover language, dance, music, and art passed down for generations. Learn how the band lives today. Explore activities year round in the The Four Seasons room, and tour the Trading Post to see art American Indians make and sell.

Seth Eastman: Depictions of Native American Life Primary Source Set
This primary source set created by the Minnesota Digital Library includes:

  • a topic overview
  • ten to twenty primary sources
  • links to related resources and
  • a teaching guide which includes classroom discussion questions and activities.

Hungry Johnny
At the community feast, observing the bounty of festive foods and counting the numerous elders yet to be seated, Johnny learns to be patient and respectful despite his growling tummy.

Ojibwe Lifeways (PDF)
"Ojibwe Lifeways" is an article for young naturalists about the Civilian Conservation Corps in the Minnesota Conservation Volunteer magazine. An educator-created "Teacher's Guide" contains a corresponding study guide and activity ideas.

Night Flying Woman
An Ojibway Narrative With the art of a practiced storyteller, Ignatia Broker recounts the life of her great-great-grandmother, Night Flying Woman, who was born in the mid-19th century and lived during a chaotic time of enormous change, uprootings, and loss for the Minnesota Ojibway. But this story also tells of her people's great strength and continuity.

Ojibwe Shoulder Bag Kit
Based on stories from the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe in Central Minnesota, this kit can enrich your lessons on native culture, wherever you live in the United States or beyond.

The fur trade brought American Indians and Euro­peans together as trading partners in Minnesota and other parts of North America. Many people were involved in this trade over the course of several hun­dred years. Explore the roles and relationships of the people involved in the fur trade and the seasonal nature of the work.

Voyageurs National Park
Voyageurs National Park was established in 1975, but is filled with evidence of over 10,000 years of human life and use. Signs of Native Americans, fur traders and homesteaders, signs of logging, mining, and commercial fishing are scattered throughout the park. Voyageurs has three visitors centers for those who want to visit. They also have traveling trunks available for rental on the topics of voyageurs and wolves.

Grand Portage National Monument
Live History. Celebrate Heritage. Travel into the past to discover the present. Explore the partnership of the Grand Portage Ojibwe and the North West Company during the North American fur trade and the NPS today. Follow pathways into a distant time. Experience the sights and smells of a bustling depot reconstructed in its exact location. Hear the beat of the drum echo over Gichigami — Lake Superior.​

Objects of the Fur Trade
The Objects of the Fur Trade Primary Source Packet familiarizes students and teachers with historical objects. Photographs of objects in the packet and the corresponding guiding questions provide an avenue for integrating objects into history curriculum. The objects featured relate to the North American fur trade, but the questions and activities can be applied to any type of historical object.

Seth Eastman: Depictions of Native American Life Primary Source Set
This primary source set created by the Minnesota Digital Library includes:

  • a topic overview
  • ten to twenty primary sources
  • links to related resources and
  • a teaching guide which includes classroom discussion questions and activities.

Snake River Fur Post Field Trip
Northern Lights teachers love the fur trade! Check out the classroom resources, like books, objects, vocab support, Ojibwe history, living history links and more. Book your field trip to discover the big business of the fur trade, huddle in a wigwam, hear stories, and see the goods that would have been exchanged at "stores" like this.

The United States was a young nation that was growing quickly and desired more land. During the mid-1800s, it acquired millions of acres of land from Minnesota’s Dakota and Ojibwe. Land changed hands through a series of written agreements called treaties. Learn how life was changing in dramatic ways for those connected to the land.

Why Treaties Matter
This online resource, a companion to an exhibit now on display at the Minnesota State Capitol, contains a virtual exhibit, numerous videos, and educator resources.

Historic Fort Snelling Field Trip
Enrich your field trip by exploring this rich website. Find Northern Lights chapter alignments and standards connections, and reinforce your field trip with the website's room-by-room photo tour. Historic Fort Snelling is a great place to learn about military history, from the Civil War to WWII, fur trade history, slavery in Minnesota, the U.S.-Dakota War of 1862, and more. Its location — at the junction of rivers— has been significant for centuries to many American Indian communities.

Little Crow/Taoyateduta
A compelling biography for young readers that traces the life of the Dakota leader Taoyateduta (Little Crow) and his role in the U.S. — Dakota Conflict of 1862.

Who Was George Bonga? (PDF)
"Who Was George Bonga?" is an article for young naturalists in the Minnesota Conservation Volunteer magazine. An educator-created "Teacher's Guide" contains a corresponding study guide and activity ideas.

Historic Fort Snelling Educator Resources
Check out the many resources for studying about Fort Snelling and its place in the history of Minnesota and the nation.

Seth Eastman: Depictions of Native American Life Primary Source Set
This primary source set created by the Minnesota Digital Library includes:

  • a topic overview
  • ten to twenty primary sources
  • links to related resources and
  • a teaching guide which includes classroom discussion questions and activities.

Life in Minnesota changed drastically as a result of land treaties in the 1850s. During that decade, the population shifted from being mostly American Indian to being mostly European American. Hear the stories of St. Paul’s first public-school teacher and an early Swedish immigrant, which show some of the ways immigrants influenced the region during Minnesota’s territorial years.

Gibbs Farm
Gibbs Farm is a historic site interpreting pioneer and Dakota life in the mid-1800s. Schoolchildren will learn from costumed interpreters about Jane and Heman Gibbs and their children, their relationship with the Dakota of Cloud Man’s village, and the history of the farm. Gibbs Farm, located in Falcon Heights, has field trip options from May-October and offers classroom outreach from November-March. It is operated by the Ramsey County Historical Society.

Minnesota State Capitol Field Trip
After three years of repair and restoration, the State Capitol is open for guided tours beginning January 2017. Meet civics benchmarks as you explore the capitol's history, art and architecture. Students visit the chambers where government decisions are made. Weather permitting, visit the golden horses on the roof.

Oliver Kelley Farm Field Trip
Do your students know where food comes from? Experience the story of farming — then and now — through new, improved Kelley Farm. Show the intro clip in class, view the farm animal gallery, read about Oliver H. Kelley, and visit the site! Field trips tailored to Northern Lights feature the original 1860s farm, the new teaching kitchen, guest animal building, and more.

Slavery caused a major division between Northerners and Southerners. These groups often had differing views about its morality and necessity. War broke out when Southern states left the Union. Find out how the experiences of individuals—enslaved African Americans and a soldier in the First Minnesota Regiment—illustrate the impact of slavery and the Civil War on Minnesota.

Education Resource Portal
A curated collection of resources about specific subjects in Minnesota and U.S. history.

Dred and Harriet Scott Multimedia Curriculum Kit
In 1846, enslaved African Americans Dred and Harriet Scott filed suit in a Missouri court to win their freedom. After eleven long years, the United States Supreme Court ruled against the Scotts, denying them their freedom and rejecting the ability of Congress to forbid slavery in the territories. It remains one of the most controversial decisions in United States history. This flexible curriculum kit focuses on the story of Dred and Harriet’s quest for freedom for themselves and their daughters. By watching the portrayals of Dred and Harriet and examining primary sources of the period, students will begin to understand the differing perspectives on the issue of slavery during the turbulent decades leading up to the Civil War.

Historic Fort Snelling Field Trip
Enrich your field trip by exploring this rich website. Find Northern Lights chapter alignments and standards connections, and reinforce your field trip with the website's room-by-room photo tour. Historic Fort Snelling is a great place to learn about military history, from the Civil War to WWII, fur trade history, slavery in Minnesota, the U.S.-Dakota War of 1862, and more. Its location — at the junction of rivers— has been significant for centuries to many American Indian communities.

Civil War Letters of the Christie Family
Letters from three brothers fighting in the Civil War. Digital images of some of the most interesting letters from the collection are online. Typed transcripts have been created to make the letters easier to read.

Dred and Harriet Scott
The landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision Dred Scott v. Sandford, in which the slave Dred Scott was denied freedom for himself and his family, raised the ire of abolitionists and set the scene for the impending conflict between the northern and southern states. While most people have heard of the Dred Scott Decision, few know anything about the case’s namesake.

Historic Fort Snelling Educator Resources
Check out the many resources for studying about Fort Snelling and its place in the history of Minnesota and the nation.

In the summer of 1862, a complex mix of factors led to the U.S.-Dakota War, a deadly conflict with devastating consequences. Explore the stories of individuals who lived through the war and experienced it from a variety of perspectives.

Gibbs Farm
Gibbs Farm is a historic site interpreting pioneer and Dakota life in the mid-1800s. Schoolchildren will learn from costumed interpreters about Jane and Heman Gibbs and their children, their relationship with the Dakota of Cloud Man’s village, and the history of the farm. Gibbs Farm, located in Falcon Heights, has field trip options from May-October and offers classroom outreach from November-March. It is operated by the Ramsey County Historical Society.

Little Crow/Taoyateduta
A compelling biography for young readers that traces the life of the Dakota leader Taoyateduta (Little Crow) and his role in the U.S. — Dakota Conflict of 1862.

U.S.-Dakota War of 1862
This website shares historical background, a timeline of events, public programs, books links to photos, documents and artifacts relating to the U.S. Dakota War of 1862.

During the late 1800s, Minnesota’s landscape changed in major ways. Settlers “busted the sod,” or prepped the land for farming. Meanwhile, railroads appeared quickly, changing the way people lived and worked. Read about one family, who came to south­western Minnesota, built a farm, and lived through these and other changes.

Little Habitats on the Prairies (PDF)
"Little Habitats on the Prairies" is an article for young naturalists about the tall grass prairies in the Minnesota Conservation Volunteer magazine. An educator-created "Teacher's Guide" contains a corresponding study guide and activity ideas.

James J. Hill House Field Trip
James J. Hill and his railroad changed settlement, ag, and commerce nationwide. Enhance your instruction with clips about Empire Builder and the site itself. Bring students on a lively tour of life in a Gilded Age mansion. Tailor the visit to suit your class.

Oliver Kelley Farm Field Trip
Do your students know where food comes from? Experience the story of farming — then and now — through new, improved Kelley Farm. Show the intro clip in class, view the farm animal gallery, read about Oliver H. Kelley, and visit the site! Field trips tailored to Northern Lights feature the original 1860s farm, the new teaching kitchen, guest animal building, and more.

Forests, Fields, and the Falls
Explore Minnesota's early industries of logging, farming and milling in this interactive graphic novel.

In the late 1800s, important industries developed in our state. People found ways to profit from the state’s natural resources, such as soil, water, timber, and minerals. Follow the stories of industrialists Charles Pillsbury (flour milling), Frederick Weyerhaeuser (lumber), and Henry Oliver (iron mining) to learn how these Minnesota industries developed.

Lumberjack Math
The Lumberjack Math combines the study of math and social studies for grades 5 - 8.

St. Anthony Falls Primary Source Set
This primary source set created by the Minnesota Digital Library includes a topic overview, ten to twenty primary sources, links to related resources and a teaching guide which includes classroom discussion questions and activities.

Forest History Center Field Trip
Enhance your lessons on Minnesota industries with a visit to the Forest History Center in Grand Rapids. Meet lumberjacks, climb a 100-foot 1930s fire tower, board the floating cook shack and enjoy nature programs and events at this interactive logging camp. From your classroom, check out the interactive map of the site, complete with photos!

Keystones of the Stone Arch Bridge
Ten-year-old Fritz and his poppa help build the Stone Arch Bridge across the Mississippi River. Fritz makes friends with Margaret, a Métis girl whose family has called the region home for generations.

Forests, Fields, and the Falls
Explore Minnesota's early industries of logging, farming and milling in this interactive graphic novel.

Mining on the Iron Range Primary Source Set
This primary source set created by the Minnesota Digital Library includes:

  • a topic overview
  • ten to twenty primary sources
  • links to related resources and
  • a teaching guide which includes classroom discussion questions and activities.

Mill City Museum Field Trip
Built into the ruins of what was once the world’s largest flour mill, Mill City Museum is located on the historic Mississippi Riverfront. Here, visitors of all ages learn about the intertwined histories of the flour industry, the river, and the city of Minneapolis.


Why was I-94 built through St. Paul's Rondo neighborhood?

The highway connected Minneapolis and St. Paul, but its construction tore a hole through a thriving, historic Black neighborhood.

&mdash Brian Peterson, Star Tribune

By James Walsh , Star Tribune
December 18, 2020 - 8:49 AM

Floyd Smaller was a junior walking home from Mechanic Arts High School in the late 1950s when he saw bulldozers and cranes start moving dirt in his beloved Rondo neighborhood. By the time he was a senior, St. Paul's Rondo resembled a battlefield.

"There were big holes and trenches. It looked like World War I," said Smaller, 84. Over the next decade, a huge swath of land on either side of Rondo Avenue became No Man's Land, as more than 600 homes and 300 businesses — many of them Black-owned — were razed or moved to clear the way for Interstate Hwy. 94 connecting St. Paul and Minneapolis.

"They were run out, shoved out, pushed out, forced out," Smaller, a longtime St. Paul high school football, track and basketball coach, said of his neighbors. "It was devastating."

Jim Cox, who returned to Minnesota with his wife in 2016 after 30 years on the West Coast, attended a recent presentation about Rondo and wondered why transportation planners chose to run a freeway through what had been a thriving, integrated neighborhood that was home to most of St. Paul's African American community? He asked the Star Tribune about it as part of Curious Minnesota, our community reporting project based on smart questions from inquisitive readers.

"We heard about a lot of unhealed bitterness and sadness," said Cox, a Circle Pines resident. "And we wanted to learn more."

Art Hager, Star Tribune file

The Rondo neighborhood — bordered by University Avenue to the north, Selby Avenue to the south, Rice Street to the east, and Lexington Avenue to the west — had for decades served as the commercial and social heart of St. Paul's Black community. It nurtured churches, schools, businesses, social clubs and community organizations. It was home to doctors and lawyers, barbers and maids, civil rights leaders and Pullman porters.

But by the 1930s, when at least half the city's Black community was living in Rondo, planners began looking at the area as a potential route for a highway linking the Twin Cities' two downtowns. In 1956, Federal Interstate Highway Act funds enabled the state to start buying land and begin construction. That work continued as Smaller went away to college in 1961 — and was just wrapping up when he returned to St. Paul in 1969. Rondo residents, he said, didn't have pockets deep enough to alter or reroute the project — something predominantly white neighborhoods would at least partly achieve years later.

Marvin Anderson, who with Smaller is working to preserve Rondo's legacy through a community festival, a park and a planned museum, is convinced it was chosen because planners knew they could get land cheap while facing minimal political opposition. The 80-year-old, a former state law librarian who grew up in a Rondo Avenue apartment complex his father built, said St. Paul's close-knit Black community lost more than buildings to the bulldozers.

"Rondo gave its residents a sense of community, a sense of hope, a sense of security," he said. "It gave the Black community a place to learn to succeed without having to rely on the acceptance of whites. The destruction of Rondo destroyed the support system the African American community needed to achieve."

If you'd like to submit a Curious Minnesota question, fill out the form below:


HISTORY

Dracula is resurrected and the Belmont lineage arises once again to defeat humanity's ancient foe.

Blood is family. Blood is power. Blood is everything.

©Konami Digital Entertainment
Developed by Mercury Steam Entertainment

Experience top-quality HD graphics on the PS3 or Xbox 360.

  • Release date:Xbox 360 (Xbox Live Arcade) Oct 25, 2013 / PlayStation®3 Oct 29, 2013
  • Platform:PlayStation®3 (PSN),Xbox 360 (Xbox Live Arcade)

©Konami Digital Entertainment
Developed by Mercury Steam Entertainment

Chained by fate. Cursed by blood. Revealed by destiny.

©Konami Digital Entertainment
Developed by Mercury Steam Entertainment

Dark times need a dark hero!

©Konami Digital Entertainment
Developed by Mercury Steam Entertainment

The first multiplayer co-op action game in Castlevania history!

  • Release date:Xbox 360 Aug 4, 2010 / PlayStation®3 27 Sep, 2011
  • Platform:Xbox 360 (Xbox Live Arcade),PlayStation®3 (PSN)

Dracula is back in this new game in a classic vein.

The time for judgement has come!

I am the blade to banish all evil!

Battle Evil in Two Legendary Castlevania Adventures

The portraits hold the secrets of the castle!

Reach Out and Touch the Magic

A handheld Legend. Reincarnated.

Journey back in time and witness the rebirth of Dracula's evil empire.

Drac's back and this time he wants to stay!

A complete recreation of the third Castlevania game from the original Game Boy version with its original game system.

The legacy of evil returns…

The Belmont family tree will die unless you unleash your rage on the undead.

Evil lurks in the darkness…

An adventure you can really sink your teeth into.

Only you can stop Dracula from drawing first blood!

A Challenge you can’t walk away from!

Castlevania was a cake walk compared to this bloody curse.

The Legend will again be stained by blood.

It all started here… the first game for aficionados of both horror and action!

©Konami Digital Entertainment

"PlayStation", "PS4", "PS3" and "PSP" are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sony Interactive Entertainment Inc.


Eine kleine Nachtmusik

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Eine kleine Nachtmusik, (German: “A Little Night Music”) byname of Serenade No. 13 in G Major, K 525, serenade for two violins, viola, cello, and double bass by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, admired for its lively, joyful quality and its memorable melodies. The piece was completed on August 10, 1787, but was published posthumously. In present-day practice, it is typically performed in orchestral arrangement.

Although it originally denoted an evening song for courtship, the term serenade by the late 18th century was used broadly to describe a chamber work intended for light entertainment on a social occasion. Serenades enjoyed great popularity in south-central Europe, particularly in Vienna, where Mozart spent the last decade of his life. At that time, it was customary for ensembles to perform serenades in Vienna’s parks and gardens, and the creation of such pieces became a lucrative source of income for composers.

Mozart produced many serenades, the 13th of which, nicknamed Eine kleine Nachtmusik, is his best known. The four-movement work opens with a bright allegro in sonata form, and a slow, lyrical second movement follows. The third movement is a light minuet, and the finale is a brisk rondo. Originally, the piece contained a second minuet, but that movement has been lost. The specific occasion, if any, for which Eine kleine Nachtmusik was composed has never been determined.

Regardless of its original performance context, Eine kleine Nachtmusik became one of Mozart’s most popular pieces. In the late 20th century, it figured prominently in the Academy Award-winning biopic Amadeus (1984) as the character of Italian composer Antonio Salieri (Mozart’s nemesis in the film but not in real life) lamented that he himself had not created the widely admired work, as it became far more familiar than Salieri’s own works. In the 21st century, Eine kleine Nachtmusik remained among the most frequently performed and iconic of all classical compositions.


Be Bold

If you&rsquod rather make a statement with your RONDO 2, there are plenty of colourful Design Covers which really show off your audio processor.

From elegant art-inspired designs, to classic patterns and wild animal prints, you can simply snap your favourite cover onto RONDO 2 and change your look in an instant.


[1.II.25.2] Mozart's Rondo Alla Turca, from Sonata K300 (301)

I am going to assume that you have already done the HS homework, and begin with the HT part especially because HS play is relatively simple with most of Mozart's music. However, the issues of technical difficulties and "how to make it sound like Mozart" will be covered. Before starting on the details, let's discuss the sonata structure of the complete sonata because, if you learn its final section, you may decide to learn the whole thing, because there is not a single page of this sonata that is not fascinating.

The term sonata has been applied to so many types of music that it does not have a unique definition it evolved and changed with time. In the earliest times, it simply meant something like music or song. Prior to, and including, Mozart's time, it meant instrumental music with one to four parts, consisting of Sonata, Minuet, Trio, Rondo, etc. This Mozart sonata (No. 16) starts with a Sonata first section, which consists of a theme and 6 variations. This sonata part is often called sonata-allegro, because it tends to start slowly and end faster. Therefore, each variation should be played a little faster than the preceding one, making the music more interesting as it unfolds. Then comes a break, which corresponds to the middle or slow movement of a Beethoven sonata. This break takes the form of a minuet-trio, a form of dance. The minuet originated as a French court dance with 3 beats and was the predecessor of the waltz. The waltz format also includes mazurkas these originated as Polish dances, which is why Chopin composed so many mazurkas. They differ from the (Viennese) waltzes that have the accent on the first beat, in that their accent can be on the second or third beat. Waltzes started independently in Germany as a slower dance with 3 strong beats it then evolved into the popular dances that we now refer to as "Viennese". Trios gradually went extinct as quartets gained popularity. Both the minuet and trio in our sonata have the time signature 3/4. Thus every first beat carries the accent knowing that it is in a dance (waltz) format makes it easier to play the minuet-trio correctly. The trio should have a totally different air from the minuet (a convention in Mozart's time) this change in air gives the transition a refreshing feel. "Trio" generally refers to music played with 3 instruments therefore, you will see three voices in this trio, which you can assign to a violin, viola, and cello. Don't forget the "Menuetto D. C." (De Capo, which means return to the beginning) at the end of the Trio thus you must play minuet-trio-minuet. The final section is the Rondo. Rondos have the general structure ABACADA. . . , which makes good use of a catchy melody, A.

Our Rondo has the structure (BB')A(CC')A(BB')A'-Coda, a very symmetric structure. The time signature is a lively cut time can you figure out the key of BB'? The rest of this Rondo is all in A, as is the formal key of this sonata. The entire sonata is sometimes referred to as a variation on a single theme, which is probably wrong, although the Rondo resembles Variation III, and the Trio resembles Variation IV. It starts with the "B" structure, constructed from a short unit of only 5 notes, repeated twice with a rest between them in bars 1-3 it is repeated at double speed in bar 4 he cleverly uses the same unit as a conjunction between these repetitions at the end of bar 3. It is again repeated at half speed in bars 7 and 8 and the last 2 bars provide the ending. Bar 9 is the same as bar 8 except that the last note is lowered instead of raised this abrupt change in the repeating pattern is an easy way to signal an ending. The half speed units are disguised by adding two grace notes in the beginning, so that, when the entire B is played at speed, we only hear the melody without recognizing the individual repeat units. The efficiency of his composing process is astounding – he repeated the same unit 7 times in 9 bars using 3 speeds to compose one of his famous melodies. In fact, the entire sonata consists of these repeated sections that are 8 to 10 bars long, and constructed using similar methods. There are several sections that are 16 or 32 bars long, but these are multiples of the basic 8 bar sections. More examples of this type of micro-structural analysis are discussed in section IV.4 for Mozart and Beethoven. This type of analysis can be helpful for memorization and mental play – after all, mental play is how he composed them!

The technically challenging parts are (1) the fast RH trill of bar 25, (2) the fast RH runs from bar 36-60 - make sure you have good fingering, (3) the fast broken RH octaves of bars 97-104, and (4) the fast LH Alberti accompaniment of bars 119-125. Examine these elements to see which is the hardest for you, and start by practicing that element first. The broken octave sequence of bars 97-104 are not just a series of broken octaves, but two melodies, an octave and one-half step apart, chasing each other. Practice everything HS, without pedal, until they are comfortable before starting HT. Parallel set exercises are the key to developing the technique to play these elements and parallel set exercise #1 (quad repetitions) is the most important, especially for learning relaxation. For fast trills, go to III.3.a. The broken chords in the LH (bar 28, etc., and in the Coda) should be played very fast, almost like a single note, and match the RH notes. The HT practice should initially be without pedal until you are comfortable HT.

How do you make music that sounds like Mozart? There is no secret -- the instructions have been there all the time! They are the expression markings on the music for Mozart, each marking has a precise meaning, and if you follow every one of them, including the time signature, etc., the music becomes an intimate, intricate conversation. The "only" thing you need to do is to suppress the urge to insert expressions of your own. There is no better example of this than the last 3 chords at the end. It is so simple, that it is almost unbelievable (a hallmark of Mozart): the first chord is a staccato and the remaining two are legato. This simple device creates a convincing ending play it any other way, and the ending becomes a flop. Therefore, these last 3 chords should not be pedaled although some scores (Schirmer) have pedal markings on them. Better pianists tend to play the entire Rondo without pedal.

Let's examine the first 8 bars of this Rondo.

RH: The first 4 note theme (bar 1) is played legato followed by an eighth note and exact 8th rest. The note and rest are needed for the audience to "digest" the introduction of the unit. This construct is repeated, then the 4-note theme is repeated at double speed (2 per bar) in bar 4, and climaxes at the C6 played firmly and connecting to the two following staccato notes. This doubling of speed is a device used by composers all the time. In bars 5-7, the RH plays staccato, maintaining the level of excitement. The series of falling notes in bars 8-9 brings this section to a close, like someone stepping on the brakes of a car.

LH: The simple LH accompaniment provides a rigid skeleton without it, the whole 9 bars would flop around like a wet noodle. The clever placement of the ties (between the 1st and 2nd notes of bar 2, etc.) not only emphasizes the cut time nature of each bar, but brings out the rhythmic idea within this exposition it sounds like a fox trot dance step – slow, slow, quick-quick-slow in bars 2-5, repeated in bars 6-9. Because every note must be staccato in bars 6-8, the only way to emphasize the rhythm is to accent the first note of each bar.

Both notes of bar 9 (both hands) are legato and slightly softer in order to provide an ending, and both hands lift at the same instant. It is clear that we must not only know what the markings are, but also why they are there. Of course, there is no time to think about these complicated explanations the music should take care of that - the artist simply feels the effects of these markings. The strategic placing of legato, staccato, ties, and accents is the key to playing this piece, while accurately maintaining the rhythm. Hopefully, you should now be able to continue the analysis for the rest of this piece and reproduce music that is uniquely Mozart.

HT play is slightly more difficult than the previous Moonlight because this piece is faster and requires higher accuracy. Perhaps the most difficult part is the coordination of the trill in the RH with the LH in bar 25. Don't try to learn this by slowing it down. Simply make sure that the HS work is completely done using bars 25 and 26 as a single practice segment, then combine the 2 hands at speed. Always try to combine things HT at speed (or close to it) first, and use slower speeds only as a last resort because if you succeed, you will save lots of time and avoid forming bad habits. Advanced pianists almost never have to combine hands by slowing down.

After you are comfortable HT without the pedal, add the pedal. In the section starting at bar 27, the combination of broken LH chords, RH octaves, and pedal creates a sense of grandeur that is representative of how Mozart could create grandeur from relatively simple constructs. Hold the last note of this section a little longer than required by the rhythm (tenuto, bar 35), especially after the repetition, before launching into the next section. As stated earlier, Mozart wrote no pedal markings therefore, after practicing HT without pedal, add pedal only where you think it will elevate the music. Especially with difficult material such as Rachmaninoff's, less pedal is looked upon by the pianist community as indicating superior technique.



Rondo (hudba)

Rondo alebo rondó (staršie rondeau) je hudobná forma, založená na niekoľkonásobnom návrate výraznej témy, pričom jej jednotlivé nástupy sú vystriedané iným hudobným materiálom – medzivetami alebo novými, samostatnými témami.

S najstaršou formou ronda sa stretávame v stredovekých tanečných piesňach v 13. storočí, v ktorých sa striedal sólový spev (couplet) so zborovým refrénom (refrain). Tento princíp sa neskôr preniesol aj do inštrumentálnej hudby. Najstaršou formou ronda v inštrumentálnej hudbe je couperinovské rondo (Francois Couperin) v 17. – 18. storočí. Neskôr sa rozvinuli aj ďalšie formy ronda.

Podľa počtu striedavých tém a spôsobu ich striedania rozoznávame rondá piatich typov:

  • Nižšie typy ronda:
    • couperinovské (rondo I. typu)
    • rondo II. typu – malé rondo
    • rondo III. typu – veľké rondo
    • rondo IV. typu
    • rondo V. typu

    Obidve rondá IV. a V. typu sa nazývajú tiež sonátové rondá.

    Téma ronda, ktorá sa v každom type ronda viacnásobne vracia, býva melodicky aj rytmicky výrazná, ľahko zapamätateľná. Z hľadiska formy je rondo v niektorom type stavby krátkej piesne, t. j. väčšinou je periodické. Charakter témy ronda závisí od toho, v akom tempe je skladba. Pokiaľ nie sú samostatnou skladbou, rondá prvých dvoch typov sú zvyčajne pomalou časťou sonátového cyklu, rondá III. až V. typu rýchlou, väčšinou poslednou časťou cyklu, vtedy mávajú spravidla humorný charakter.

    • Rondo I. typu (Couperinovské) je monotématickým typom ronda, pretože má len jednu výraznú tému. Medzi jej návratmi znie stále nová medziveta. Téma ronda sa vracia vždy v hlavnej tónine. Medzivety vychádzajú z materiálu témy alebo prinášajú vlastný materiál, ale je menej závažný. Môžu vybočiť do blízkych tónin. Väčšinou sú krátke, majú úlohu pripraviť návrat témy ronda. Téma ronda znie stále v pôvodnej podobe, alebo je čiastočne variovaná. Rondo môže uzatvárať kóda.
    • Rondo II. typu – malé rondo je bitematickým typom ronda, pretože obsahuje dve samostatné témy, ktoré sú voči sebe kontrastné charakterom, tempom, stavbou i tóninou. Ide teda o striedanie dvoch tém. Tento typ ronda je rozvinutím piesňovej formy reprízového typu. Téma ronda sa vracia často variovane, alebo aspoň s obohateným sprievodom a to v hlavnej, prípadne rovnomennej tónine. Kontrastná téma máva oproti téme ronda neperiodickú stavbu, rýchlejšie tempo, býva uvádzaná v niektorej z príbuzných tónin – dominantnej alebo paralelnej. Posledný text tejto témy spravidla pripravuje nástup témy ronda, preto zvyčajne už nenastupuje medziveta. Rondo ukončuje buď téma, alebo ešte pripojená krátka kóda.
    • Rondo III. typu – veľké rondo je polytématickým typom ronda, pretože obsahuje najmenej tri samostatné témy, ktoré sú navzájom kontrastné charakterom, tempom, stavbou aj tóninou. Téma ronda sa vracia aj v tomto type vždy v hlavnej prípadne v rovnomennej tónine, často vo variovanej podobe. Každá nová témy prináša novú tóninu. Opäť platí, že téma ronda je stavaná periodicky, ostatné témy neperiodicky. Medzi nimi sa môžu vyskytovať medzivety. Rondo končí buď návratom témy ronda alebo kódou.

    Vyššie typy ronda sú kombináciou rondovej a sonátovej formy, preto sa nazývajú tiež sonátové rondá. So sonátovou formou majú spoločný predovšetkým tonálny plán najmä rondo V. typu, ktoré obsahuje úplnú sonátovú expozíciu a reprízu. Spoločným znakom môže byť aj čiastočné rozvedenie témy ronda alebo inej témy, ktoré sa niekedy nachádza v strednej časti vyšších typov ronda. Z hľadiska témy (najmä rondo V. typu) je tu opäť podobnosť so sonátovou formou, v tématickom kontraste a krajných dieloch ronda (rondo IV. typu obsahuje dve kontrastné témy, rondo V. typu tri čo je vlastne obdoba hlavnej témy, vedľajšej témy a záverečnej témy v expozícii sonátovej formy).

    Od sonátovej formy sa tieto typy ronda líšia predovšetkým strednou časťou v ktorej uvádzajú novú, s krajnými dielmi kontrastujúcu tému. Ak sa v rozvedení sonátovej formy objaví nová téma, má epizodický charakter, dôraz je na rozvedení tém expozície. V sonátovom ronde je nová téma v strednom dieli širšie koncipovaná na väčšej ploche a ak sa tu nachádza aj rozvedenie niektorej témy, nie je na ňom taky dôraz, ako v sonátovej forme.

    1. diel: Téma ronda je v periodicky stavanej piesňovej forme v hlavnej tónine, rýchlom tempe. Po medzivete, ktorá moduluje do dominantnej alebo paralelnej tóniny nastupuje v tejto novej tónine vedľajšia veta (zvyčajne menej výrazná ako v sonátovej forme). Nasleduje opäť téma ronda v hlavnej tónine.

    2. diel: Prináša novú tému, ktorá je tiež v piesňovej forme, ale je v pomalšom tempe a v tónine, ktorá ešte nebola uvedená(paralelnej, subdominantnej a pod.). V tomto dieli môžu byť aj prvky rozvedenia.

    3. diel: Je reprízou 1. dielu, ale s tonálnym vyrovnaním. Uzatvárať ho môže kóda.

    Podobne ako v 1. dieli aj medzi jednotlivými dielmi sa môžu nachádzať medzivety, ktoré prekonávajú tonálny rozdiel.

    • Rondo V. typu obsahuje 4 témy, opäť v trojdielnom usporiadaní: expozícia, stredný diel, repríza. Na rozdiel od IV. typu ronda má v expozícii 3 kontrastné témy, čím sa zhoduje so sonátovou formou.

    1. diel: Po téme ronda v hlavnej tónine a po medzivete nastupuje vedľajšia téma v dominantnej alebo paralelnej tónine, v tej istej tónine zostáva aj záverečná téma.

    2: diel: Nastupuje široko koncipovaná nová téma, pričom sa často v tomto dieli vyskytnú tiež prvky rozvedenia.

    3. diel: Prináša reprízu expozície, opäť s tonálnym vyrovnaním. Väčšinou nasleduje malý alebo veľký typ kódy (niekedy má tvar druhého rozvedenia).

    Vyššie typy ronda, ak nie sú samostatnou skladbou, vyskytujú sa v rámci sonátového cyklu ako posledná finálna časť. Majú vždy rýchle tempo a často aj dramatický charakter.


    Watch the video: Remembering Rondo. History Harvest