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(SP-112: t. 20; 1. 80'; b. 17'; dr. 2'10"; s. 14 k.; a. 2 1-pdrs.,1 mg.)
Motor boat Nepenthe, a houseboat built by Mathis Yacht Building Co., Camden, N.J., in 1917, was acquired by the Navy at Key West, Fla., from James Dearing, Miami, Fla., 7 June 1917 for use on section patrol in the 7th Naval District during World War I. However, Nepenthe proved unsuitable for Navy service, and was returned to her owner 5 October 1917.
Anesthetics through history
Drugs of various kinds have been used for many centuries to reduce the distress of surgical operations. Homer wrote of nepenthe, which was probably cannabis or opium. Arabian physicians used opium and henbane. Centuries later, powerful rum was administered freely to British sailors before emergency amputations were carried out on board ship in the aftermath of battle.
In 1799 Sir Humphry Davy, British chemist and inventor, tried inhaling nitrous oxide and discovered its anesthetic properties, but the implications of his findings for surgery were ignored. By the early 1840s parties had become fashionable in Britain and the United States at which nitrous oxide, contained in bladders, was passed around and inhaled for its soporific effect. It was soon found that ether, which could be carried much more conveniently in small bottles, was equally potent. In the United States several young dentists and doctors experimented independently with the use of nitrous oxide or ether to dull the pain of tooth extractions and other minor operations. In 1845 American dentist Horace Wells attempted to publicly demonstrate the use of nitrous oxide anesthesia for dental extractions. Unfortunately, the demonstration was deemed unsuccessful, as the patient cried out during the procedure.
Historians argue about who should be credited with the first use of true surgical anesthesia, but it fell to William Morton, an American dentist, to convince the medical world that general anesthesia was a practical proposition. He administered ether to a patient having a neck tumour removed at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston in October 1846. American surgeon Crawford Long had used ether in his practice since 1842 but did not make his findings public until 1849.
A few weeks after Morton’s demonstration, ether was used during a leg amputation performed by Robert Liston at University College Hospital in London. In Britain, official royal sanction was given to anesthetics by Queen Victoria, who accepted chloroform from her physician, John Snow, when giving birth to her eighth child, Prince Leopold, in 1853.
Early anesthetics had unpleasant side effects (often causing vomiting on recovery) and were somewhat hazardous, since the dose needed to produce unconsciousness and full muscle relaxation (so that the surgeon could work unimpeded) was not far short of that which would paralyze the breathing centre of the brain. In addition, the early anesthetics were administered by simple devices consisting of glass or metal containers for sponges soaked in ether or chloroform (which was introduced as an anesthetic in 1847) and allowed no control of dosage.
Modern inhalation anesthetics such as trichloroethylene and halothane have a much wider safety margin and are administered, mixed with oxygen and nitrous oxide, from an anesthetic machine. The anesthetist can control the flow and composition of the gas mixture precisely and, using a tube placed down the trachea (windpipe) after the patient is unconscious, can, if necessary, maintain respiration by mechanical means. Delivering the gas mixture to the lungs through a close-fitting endotracheal tube also prevents accidental inhalation of mucus, saliva, and vomit. With respiration artificially maintained, it is possible to paralyze the muscles with drugs like curare, a neuromuscular blocking agent, so that procedures requiring full muscle relaxation, such as chest and abdominal surgery, can be carried out under light anesthesia.
The local anesthetic cocaine was used for anesthetizing the cornea during eye operations in 1884 by Viennese surgeon Carl Koller, acting on the suggestion of Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. A solution of the drug was applied directly to the part to be operated on. Soon it was being injected under the skin to facilitate small local operations, and it was later successfully used for larger procedures, such as dental procedures, by injecting it into the trunks of nerves supplying a part. Synthetic cocaine substitutes were later widely used.
In the 20th and 21st centuries, the claimed anesthetic effects of acupuncture, a technique used in traditional Chinese medicine, gained interest among practitioners of Western (conventional) medicine. As applied in Western medicine, apparently painless major operations are carried out after the insertion of acupuncture needles into specified points on the skin. Often an electric current is passed through the needle used. The results of some research into the efficacy of acupuncture have suggested that the stimulation of the peripheral nerves by the needles triggers the release of endorphins, a group of neurochemicals that have painkilling effects.
Perched high atop a peak in the Santa Lucia Mountains, just off the winding route of California’s coast-hugging Cabrillo Highway, you’ll find a restaurant that provides visitors with a stunning panorama of rocky beaches and rugged oceanside landscape. Nepenthe is far more than a scenic overlook, though, with a history stretching back over half a century and involving the likes of Orson Welles, Elizabeth Taylor, and Henry Miller.
Nepenthe was started in 1949 by Bill and Lolly Fassett, who purchased the land from Orson Welles and Rita Hayworth whose intentions to use the property as a vacation home had ultimately come to naught. The restaurant was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright protégé Rowan Maiden and was intended to become a seamless component of not only the physical landscape, but also the creative cultural landscape that was integral to life in Big Sur.
As artists, writers, musicians, vagabonds, and new age monks moved into the area — attracted by the quietude, physical beauty, and presence of like-minded individuals — Nepenthe became central to this community, providing good food and drink, dancing and revelry. There was even a place to sleep or the possibility of trading work for food, should a person be in need. The restaurant’s name is a reference to Homer’s Odyssey, which described a drug of the same name that banished grief or trouble from a person’s mind. In the context of the restaurant, the name is often translated as “The House of No Sorrow.”
Guests of Nepenthe from this era include actress Kim Novak and singer Joan Baez. Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton frequented the restaurant while shooting their 1965 film The Sandpiper in Big Sur the film includes a folk dancing scene that was shot on a sound stage replica of Nepenthe. Henry Miller was a Nepenthe regular from its opening till he moved from Big Sur in 1962 and reportedly played ping pong with Bill Hassett. The restaurant was mentioned in Miller’s 1957 memoir Big Sur and the Oranges of Hieronymus Bosch.
Nepenthe treats visitors to outdoor rail seating that overlooks Graves Canyon and a fifty-mile stretch of the Pacific coastline. Well-timed arrivals can enjoy a remarkable sunset view while they dine or drink. The redwoods and oaks making up the surrounding forest host a variety of bird species, who carry on playfully throughout the day and have been known to steal crackers and fries from the plates of surprised patrons.
Johnson 112 HP SPL is it a good motor?
OMC was in flux durring those years. But the problems they had were major, and if you have a used one, chances are it's "one of the good ones". But do NOT buy it without having a compression test performed in your pressence. Look for all the normal signs of bad news, such as a dot of oil on the ground under the skeg,and an oily prop/skeg area.<br />Remove the cover, and make sure the engine was not "touched-up" with paint, or paint which has scorched,bubbled or blistered on or near the head (signs of engine overheated at one time).<br />If it looks clean,albeit the patina of it's age, the compression test shows good and equal compression, it IS one of the good ones.
Petty Officer 2nd Class
Re: Johnson 112 HP SPL is it a good motor?
Very possible it's 98. The last year for the crossflow V4's was 98 not 96. The Spl's came without VRO oil injection. That's probably the best engine OMC ever made. It's basicaly the same engine from 1958 when they first introduced the V4.. It was also probably one of their dumber moves discontinuing the crossflow for the loopers.
Re: Johnson 112 HP SPL is it a good motor?
Ditto Dunk! The crossflows were very good engines with some untapped power left in the front.<br /><br />Good luck!
Nepenthe's Children: The history of the discoveries of medicines for sleep and anesthesia
In this book, Dr. Mendelson recounts the stories of how medicines for sleep and anesthesia were discovered and developed. Among these: How chloroform was accidentally synthesized by a rural New York family doctor attempting to make a pesticide. How ether came into use because of the complicated interactions of a shady dentist with a history of forgery, a patrician Harvard In this book, Dr. Mendelson recounts the stories of how medicines for sleep and anesthesia were discovered and developed. Among these: How chloroform was accidentally synthesized by a rural New York family doctor attempting to make a pesticide. How ether came into use because of the complicated interactions of a shady dentist with a history of forgery, a patrician Harvard professor who also believed he had taught Samuel Morse the secret of the telegraph, and a Connecticut dentist who was later arrested for throwing acid on prostitutes. How the mystery of wilting carnation flowers in a greenhouse led to the discovery of ethylene. And how atomic bomb research during World War II played a crucial role in the development of halothane and newer anesthetics such as sevoflurane.
The early chapters trace the origins of psychoactive drugs to alkaloids, ‘chemical thorns’ which plants use to protect themselves from predators. In prehistoric times they became incorporated into religious ceremonies and magic, followed by the growing realization beginning in classical Greece through the Medical Renaissance that they are physical substances which alter the body’s physiology. Later chapters trace the often-accidental discoveries of medicines for sleep and anesthesia by a number of colorful individuals in the 19th and 20th centuries, the movement from plant-based drugs to synthetic agents, and the trend from discoveries by individuals to the work of teams comprised of members with complementary skills.
Dr. Mendelson draws on forty years of research in pharmacology involving many of the medicines described here, such as propofol, benzodiazepines and barbiturates, to present a remarkable saga of how we came to have the medicines used today to aid sleep and to make modern surgery possible. . more
Art of Shadow Ash and the Shade of the Sha
You have come to know the Torah(Law, World, Dualtree of life) through the aleph-bet well.
Now, you also know that at while we are double, we are quadruple. Adam has two natures and so does Eve.
Bad Eve tempted good Adam to make him fall and get bad Adam to the throne. And thus, we forgot who we were.
The left(Adam, north(Seth), South(Osiris)) and right(Eve, South(Nepthys), East(Isis)) brain hemispheres are the tree of life.
Hey thanks for the comment.
You caused me to think of a deck of common playing cards as an interesting parallel of the sorts.
You have 2 colors, red and black.
But 4 suits: Hearts+Diamonds, and Spades+Clubs. (Four Seasons of Year)
52 cards (52 weeks of year)
It's cool how the concepts can be applied just about anywhere it would seem, and they work very effectively.
I am going to add some more stuff today momentarily, I meant to yesterday but the wife got home early and obviously she won my attention, lol.
I have been wanting to bring up The Tempest a little more directly because I think it's a little obscure compared to other Shakespeare.
I don't think I really knew anything about this particular piece prior to stumbling upon it recently.
I have read several plays, have acted in parts in them on stage (as a kid in school), and have even been to a few professional top tier performances and witnessed the best in Macbeth, A Midsummer Night's Dream, etc.
But I must have missed this one (among many others).
Anyhow, let's I'll continue w/the wiki:
The wiki has a lot of info so it's worth looking through. Tons of links.
Ok, let's see here.
Here is the Clue we need to decode the messages :
Back to The Tempest, let's look at some of the Characters.
Prospero is the rightful Duke of Milan, who (with his young daughter, Miranda) was put to sea on "a rotten carcass of a butt [boat]" to die by his usurping brother, Antonio, twelve years before the play begins. Prospero and Miranda survived, and found exile on a small island. He has learned sorcery from books secretly given to him (referred to as his "Art" in the play), and uses it while on the island to protect Miranda and control the other characters. On the island, he becomes master of the monster Caliban (the son of Sycorax, a malevolent witch) and forces Caliban into submission by torturing him with magic if he does not obey him, and Ariel, an elemental who is beholden to Prospero after he is freed from his prison inside a tree.
However, at the end of the play, Prospero intends to drown his book and renounce magic. In the view of the audience, this may have been required to make the ending unambiguously happy, as magic smacked too much of diabolical works he will drown his books for the same reason that Doctor Faust, in an earlier play by Christopher Marlowe, promised in vain to burn his books.
It says in the Prospero link:
The Sandman's main character is Dream, the Lord of Dreams (also known, to various characters throughout the series, as Morpheus, Oneiros, the Shaper, the Shaper of Form, Lord of the Dreaming, the Dream King, Dream-Sneak, Dream Cat, Murphy, Kai'ckul, and Lord L'Zoril), who is essentially the anthropomorphic personification of dreams. At the start of the series, Morpheus is captured by an occult ritual and held prisoner for 70 years. Morpheus escapes in the modern day and, after avenging himself upon his captors, sets about rebuilding his kingdom, which has fallen into disrepair in his absence. Gaiman himself has summarized the plot of the series (in the foreword to Endless Nights) as "The Lord of Dreams learns that one must change or die, and makes his decision."
The character's initial haughty and often cruel manner begins to soften after his years of imprisonment at the start of the series, but the challenge of undoing past sins and changing old ways is an enormous one for a being who has been set in his ways for billions of years. In its beginnings, the series is a very dark horror comic. Later, the series evolves into an elaborate fantasy series, incorporating elements of classical and contemporary mythology, ultimately placing its protagonist in the role of a tragic hero.
he Masque of the Red Death", originally published as "The Mask of the Red Death" (1842), is a short story by Edgar Allan Poe. The story follows Prince Prospero's attempts to avoid a dangerous plague known as the Red Death by hiding in his abbey. He, along with many other wealthy nobles, has a masquerade ball within seven rooms of his abbey, each decorated with a different color. In the midst of their revelry, a mysterious figure disguised as a Red Death victim enters and makes his way through each of the rooms. Prospero dies after confronting this stranger, whose "costume" proves to have nothing tangible inside it the guests also die in turn. The story follows many traditions of Gothic fiction and is often analyzed as an allegory about the inevitability of death, though some critics advise against an allegorical reading. Many different interpretations have been presented, as well as attempts to identify the true nature of the titular disease.
The story was first published in May 1842 in Graham's Magazine. It has since been adapted in many different forms, including the 1964 film starring Vincent Price. It has been alluded to by other works in many types of media.
Why am I bringing this up? Well read this:
The story takes place at the castellated abbey of the "happy and dauntless and sagacious" Prince Prospero. Prospero and one thousand other nobles have taken refuge in this walled abbey to escape the Red Death, a terrible plague with gruesome symptoms that has swept over the land. Victims are overcome by convulsions and sweat blood. The plague is said to kill within half an hour. Prospero and his court are indifferent to the sufferings of the population at large. They intend to await the end of the plague in luxury and safety behind the walls of their secure refuge, having welded the doors shut.
One night, Prospero holds a masquerade ball to entertain his guests in seven colored rooms of the abbey. Each of the first six rooms is decorated and illuminated in a specific color: blue, purple, green, orange, white, and violet. The last room is decorated in black and is illuminated by a scarlet light, "a deep blood color". Because of this chilling pairing of colors, very few guests are brave enough to venture into the seventh room. The same room is the location of a large ebony clock that ominously clangs at each hour, upon which everyone stops talking or dancing and the orchestra stops playing. Once the chiming stops, everyone immediately resumes the masquerade. At the chiming of midnight, the revelers and Prospero notice a figure in a dark, blood-splattered robe resembling a funeral shroud. The figure's face resembles a mask that looks much like the rigid face of a corpse, and exhibits the traits of the Red Death. Gravely insulted, Prospero demands to know the identity of the mysterious guest so that they can hang him. The guests are too afraid to approach the figure, instead letting him pass through the seven chambers. The Prince pursues him with a drawn dagger until he is cornered in the seventh room. When the figure turns to face him, the Prince lets out a sharp cry and falls dead. The enraged and terrified revelers surge into the black room and forcibly remove the mask and robe, only to find to their horror that there is no solid form underneath. Only then do they realize that the figure is the Red Death itself, and all of the guests contract and succumb to the disease. The final line of the story sums up, "And Darkness and Decay and the Red Death held illimitable dominion over all."
That's a big quote but the story is significant, I even had to read it in like 8th grade, so I assume everyone is familiar with it. And with a legendary name like "The Masque of the Red Death", it's hard to resist mentioning.
Goes perfect with all of this, anyhow.
Miranda (mə-RAN-də) is one of the principal characters of William Shakespeare’s The Tempest. She is the only female character to appear on stage during the course of the play and is one of only three women mentioned.
Miranda is the daughter of Prospero, one of the main characters of William Shakespeare's The Tempest. She was banished to the Island along with her father at the age of three, and in the subsequent twelve years has lived with her father and their slave, Caliban, as her only company. She is openly compassionate and unaware of the evils of the world that surrounds her, learning of her father's fate only as the play begins.
Miranda is a name of Latin origin, meaning "worthy of admiration".
On the right under "Synonyms" it lists "Miranda" from "Argiope" :
Argiope ("silver face") may refer to:
Greek mythological persons
Argiope, a Naiad, a daughter of the River God Nile. She was wife of Agenor and mother of his children. More commonly known as Telephassa
Argiope, a Naiad of mount Parnassus, possibly the daughter of the river-god Cephissus, mother of Thamyras by Philammon
Argiope, a Naiad of the town of Eleusis, possibly the daughter of the river-god Cephissus, mother of Cercyon by Branchus
Argiope, daughter of Teuthras, king of Teuthrania
Argiope (spider), a genus of spiders which includes the St Andrew's Cross spider and the wasp spider
Argiope, a monster from the MMORPG Ragnarok Online
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Flora and vegegation of Danau Sentarum: unique lake and swamp forest ecosystem of West Kalimantan.
Danau Sentarum National Park is characterized by lakes and a variety of swamp forests that are unique, and unlike comparable habitats in Indonesia or Southeast Asia. Structurally, it was once very similar to the Mahakam Lakes in East Kalimantan, but the latter area is severely degraded. Three main swamp forest types are recognized on the basis of structure: dwarf swamp forest, stunted swamp forest, and tall swamp forest. Within each of these, various vegetation types are recognized on the basis of dominant species. Basic structural types are closely linked with depth and duration of flooding. Aquatic vegetation is virtually absent, due to a combination of severe fluctuation in water levels and low nutrient levels in lake waters. Plant species diversity of each habitat is low, but due to diversity in habitat types, overall plant diversity is relatively high and 262 species are recorded for swamp forests. DSNP harbors 30-40 endemics or restricted range species. The most serious immediate threats to the integrit y of these forests are fires and illegal logging, while swidden cultivation on levees forms the main threat to the riparian habitat.
Swamp habitats in Indonesia
Large areas of non-marine swamp occur in the lowlands of Sumatra, Borneo, and Papua, extending over a total area of 23-3 5 million hectares (Euroconsult, 1984 Silvius et al., 1987 RePPProT, 1990 IIED, 1994), and form one of the largest areas of tropical swamp world-wide outside of Amazonia (WCMC, 1992 Maltby, 1997). These swamps consist of two main types, namely peat swamp forest and freshwater swamp forest. The former is characterized by peat soils, which by definition have an organic matter content of at least 65 percent, while the latter occurs on predominantly mineral soils. More than three-quarters of all peat land in Southeast Asia occurs in Indonesia, and with a total area of 17-27 million hectares, it accounts for more than half of the world's total of tropical peat land (Maltby, 1997).
Most of Indonesia's non-marine swamps are near coastal areas and were forested before the advent of large-scale commercial logging in the 1980s and 1990s. Isolated swamps further inland, in the middle or upper basins of larger rivers, are far less common. Papua very extensive swamp forests are broad, inland extensions of coastal freshwater swamp forests, and due to the rugged, mountainous nature of the interior, inland swamps are either absent or consist of medium to high altitude bogs (Paaijmans, 1976 Petocz, 1989). Most swamps of Sumatra follow a similar pattern: peat- and freshwater swamp forests are found along most of the east coast and extend far inland, with wooded medium to high altitude bogs found in the central mountain range (Scholz, 1983 Silvius et al., 1987). Due to a flat topography, lowland swamps have developed far inland on Borneo and are well-developed in the middle-upper reaches of the island's longest rivers, especially along the Mahakam and Kapuas (Silvius et al., 1987). While forested swamps along the Mahakam have largely deteriorated over the past decades, those in the upper Kapuas basin are relatively intact, and a significant area is protected in the Danau (=lake) Sentarum National Park.
Danau Sentarum National Park
The Danau Sentarum National Park (further referred to as DSNP or the Park) covers an area of 132,000 hectares, and is located in the floodplain of the upper Kapuas River in West Kalimantan (see Giesen and Aglionby, 2000). The Park lies between the Kapuas River and the border with Sarawak, and is located between 0[degrees]40'-0[degrees]55' N and 112[degrees]00' - 112[degrees]25' E at an average elevation of 35 meters. DSNP consists of a series of interconnected seasonal lakes, interspersed with swamp forest, peat swamp forest, and dry lowland forest on isolated hills. It was gazetted a Wildlife Reserve (Suaka Margasatwa) in 1982, and its status was upgraded to National Park (Taman Nasional) in 1999.
Annual rainfall in the Park fluctuates around 3,900 mm per year, while the surrounding hills and mountainous catchment area receive 4,500-6,000 mm. Because of high precipitation levels, most of the low-lying areas in the basin--including Danau Sentarum--are flooded in the wetter months. Water levels of the lakes and streams may rise and fall up to 12 meters during an average year. During about nine months of the year the lake system is flooded, with an average maximum depth of 6.5 meters, though levels may fluctuate substantially. During the remainder of the year (usually late June-early September) waters usually retreat to the deepest channels and the lakes dry out entirely in two out of three years.
Isolated waterholes or kerinan may remain in the swamp forest or otherwise dry lake bed, while deeper parts of otherwise dry streams may remain as pools or lubuk Lakes and stream waters are colored by tannins, ins, very mineral-deficient and acidic, with a pH of 4.55.5. Light penetration in water is about one meter, while conductivity averages at 16 [micro]S (range 9-24 [micro]S). Dissolved oxygen levels are fairly low, averaging at 4.4 mg/l, while surface temperatures are high (30.4[degrees]C). The geology of Danau Sentarum consists largely of recent deposits with some arkosic sandstone outcroppings. Recent deposits consist of illite and kaolin clays in the lake basin, with pockets of shallow to moderately deep topogenic peat occurring locally. Soils on slopes consist mainly of highly weathered and nutrient poor loams and sands, while those on the flat ridge tops consist of fine to moderately fine sands and loamy sands. In general, soils throughout the area have a low to very low nutrient status and are infe rtile. The flat topography is relieved by several isolated hills in the Park, and hill ranges to the west, northeast, and east.
Botanical studies were initially carried out in the area by the author in 1986 (Giesen, 1987). These included the collection of voucher specimens (numbered 1-200), which were deposited at Bogor, Leiden and (partly at) Kew herbariums. During the UK-Indonesia Tropical Forest Management Program (UK-ITFMP) project at DSNP (1992-97), further collections were made of both ferns and seed plants. Voucher specimens (numbered Zulkarnain and Giesen 300-580, dated 1993-94) were deposited at and identified by Bogor and Leiden herbariums, with duplicates held at the Park's Bukit Tekenang Field Center. Kew Herbarium provided identifications of collected palm specimens. Local plant names and uses were recorded for each species. Plant specimens were also identified in the field using Flora Malesiana, Tree Flora of Malaya, Airy Shaw (1975), Backer and Poshumus (1939), Bakhuizen van den Brink (1943-45), Corner (1988), Danser (1927-28, 1931, 1936-37, 1940) and Piggott (1988). Whitmore et al. (1990) was used to convert local name s to scientific names the latter were subsequently cross-referenced by comparing plant material with literature references.
To assess the composition and structure of DSNP vegetation, surveys included transects, whereby vegetation along a discrete line is described. Transects of DSNP swamp forest vegetation were carried out on a stratified random basis (Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg, 1974), using a 1990 Landsat TM image of the area and 1:50,000 scale base maps created by the UK-ITFMP team, as a basis for site selection. Points were located in the field using a Magellan 5000 Global Positioning System. Each transect measured 10 by 100 meters, within which all plants were recorded, and height/diameter records were made of woody species with a dbh of more than five centimeters. In addition to plant species and location, water depths were measured in the flooded forest, along with soil type and peat depth. In all, 66 transects were carried out between 7 March and 11 June 1994. Ten transects were on peat soil, half of which (transects 24,26,37,43,61) were shallow (< 50 cm deep), while others were up to 4.05 meters deep. Transect data wa s entered into a spreadsheet, and analyzed for species presence and relative abundance. Habitat surveys also included: a) short surveys in 27 burnt areas, whereby species occurrence and condition was noted (June 1994) b) a phenology study of 29 plant species occurring along the jetty at Bukit Tekenang (every 1-2 weeks, January 1994-January 1995) and c) a study of the phenology of 40 common plant species at DSNP, every 2-3 weeks (January 1994-January 1995).
Study of the flora of DSNP began with Beccari in 1867, when he collected about 3035 type specimens (Beccari, 1904), which are held by the herbarium of Florence. Subsequent collections were made in the lake area by Teysmann (1875), Hallier (1895), Polak (1949) and Giesen (1987). Altogether, 504 plant species were recorded in the Danau Sentarum area, representing 99 families (see Appendix I), of which 57 percent were identified to species level and 35 percent to genus level. The ten best-represented plant families are Dipterocarpaceae, with 40 species, Euphorbiaceae 36 species, Rubiaceae 35 species, Myrtaceae 26 species, Fabaceae 21 species, Lauraceae 20 species, Melastomataceae 20 species, Guttiferae 19 species, Moraceae 14 species, and Arecaceae 14 species.
Of these 504 species, just over half (262) are found in the Danau Sentarum swamp forests, where plant collecting efforts by the author were concentrated. Most of the remainder are found in dryland habitats such as lowland forest, heath forest and sites of former shifting cultivation. Aquatic herbaceous species are uncommon, probably because of the significant annual fluctuations in water levels, and are generally limited to more permanent bodies of water near the Kapuas River. Almost three-quarters (73%) of the 504 species are trees and shrubs.
The Danau Sentarum area harbors novel and interesting plant species. Dichilanthe borneensis (known locally as berus), was first collected at Danau Sentarum by Beccari in 1867, and has never been collected elsewhere. This unique species represents a link between the Rubiaceae (to which it has been assigned) and the Scrophulariaceae, incorporating characteristics from both families. A new species of Rhodoleia (insang dungan) was collected in 1993 and identified by Vink (Leiden Herbarium). This species belongs to the Hamamelidaceae, a family poorly represented in Asia, with only seven genera occurring in the Malesian realm, each represented by only one species. The only other species of this family found on Borneo is Sycopsis dunnii, which is endemic to Mt. Kinabalu, Sabah (Vink, 1957). The small tree Dicoelia beccariana (belat), the sedge Hypolytrum capitulatum, the stemless palm Eugeissona ambigua (ransa) and the rattan Plectocomiopsis triquetra (rotan udang) are rare species that are locally common at DSNP (A iry-Shaw, 1975 Kern, 1972 Dransfield, pers. comm. 1986 and 1994).
Endemics/restricted range species
In the basence of comparable floristic data from much of Borneo, the number of plant species with a restricted range or endemic to Danau Sentarum can only be approximated. Many of the 35 species collected by Beccari in the Danau Sentarum area in 1867 (Beccari, 1904) are likely to have a restricted range, as he focused on novel species, and had already been active in neighboring Sarawak for many years before visiting the Kapuas lakes. Species that are endemic to DSNP or at least have a restricted range number 30-40, and include the new Rhodoleja species, Dichilanthe borneensis and Eugeissona ambigua mentioned above. Danau Sentarum is the type locality for all three species. Seven other species likely to be restricted to the Danau Sentarum area are new species collected by Giesen (1987) and Zulkarnain and Giesen (Giesen, 1996). These include Casaeria sp. nov. (Flacourtiaceae limut), Croton cf. ensifolius (Euphorbiaceae melayak), Helicia cf. petiolaris (Proteaceae putat rimba), Korthalsella cf. germinans (Lor anthaceae paha buntak), Microcos cf. stylocarpus (Tiliaceae tengkurung asam), Ternstroemia cf. toguian (Theaceae), and Vatica cf. Umbronata (Dipterocarpaceae menungau).
A number of plant species tend to flower and set fruit intermittently throughout the year, without any apparent cue by either rainfall or water depth. These species include Crudia teysmannia (timba tawang), Fagraea fragrans (tembesu), Ficus heterophylla (luwak), Psychotria montensis (akar engkerabang), and Xanthophyllum flavescens (tengkurung). If these five species are omitted from the phenology study of 29 species, there is a good correlation between flowering/fruiting and flooding regime. Of the 24 species that display seasonality, only 3 flower/fruit in the dry months of April to August, while the remainder flower or set fruit throughout the October-March wet season (with 6-18 flowering/fruiting at any given time in this period).
Relatively few exotic plant species have been introduced to DSNP these include Ageratum conyzoides, Cassia alata, Eichhornia crassipes, Hyptis brevipes, Ludwigia hyssopifolia, Mimosa pigra and Passiflora foetida. All are from tropical South America except for H. brevipes, which originates from Mexico. Waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes and Giant Mimosa Mimosa pigra are highly invasive noxious weed species (Miller et al., 1981 Soerjani et al., 1987 Finlayson, 1998), but fortunately for the Park, both remain uncommon at DSNP (see below).
Major habitat types at DSNP are indicated in Table 1 and a map is provided in Figure 1. Based on physiognomy, three major types of swamp forest can be identified: tall, stunted, and dwarf swamp forest, which have average canopy heights of 22-30, 8-15(-22) and 5-8 meters, respectively. Dwarf swamp forest develops in deeply flooded areas that may be flooded with 4-5.5 meters of water for 8-12 months per year. Tall swamp forest is flooded for 2-3 months annually by 1-2.5 meters of water, and some areas are characterized by peat soils with a depth of 0.5-4 meters. Stunted swamp forest is intermediate between tall- and dwarf swamp forest in terms of flooding depth and duration, and does not have any peat. Both dwarf and stunted swamp forests are prone to fires (see below, and Dennis et al., 2000). Heath forests are characterized by uniform, fairly small statured trees (average up to 20-25 meters), an open canopy, large numbers of myrmecophytes, and usually occur on very poor, leached sandy soils. In the DSNP area heath forests occur on the top of sandstone ridges. Lowland forest is found on the low hills and ridges around the lake basin, and consists of tall to very tall tree, with emergents attaining 35-45(-55) meters.
Herbaceous aquatic vegetation
Herbaceous aquatic vegetation is rare at DSNP. The extreme annual fluctuation of water levels limits the growth of many species, and both submerged and emergent aquatic herbs are usually absent. Incoming floodwaters bring floating mats of waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes, but these do not proliferate. Most waterhyacinth remain small, gradually turning brown and withering, except in villages and in waters near the Kapuas River. Other free-floating species such as Nile Cabbage Pistia stratiotes are rare, and occur only near villages and streams near the Kapuas River. When the lakes dry out--which occurs in two out of three years--dry lake bottoms are rapidly colonized by a carpet of small annual herbs, dominated by grasses such as Isachne globosa, sedges such as Fimbristylis dipsacea, F. miliacea, and diminutive herbs such as Lindnera species.
Emergent herbs--especially sedges--are found in swamp forests, but rarely occur as discrete vegetation types. An exception to this general pattern is formed by floating mats of herbaceous vegetation called kumpai, which occurs locally in the southern part of DSNP, especially at several oxbow lakes near the Kapuas River, and along the Mbaloh Leboyan River. Kumpai consists of thick mats of mainly perennial herbs, dominated by grasses such as Digitaria species, Echinochloa colonum, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa chinensis, Panicum conjugatum, P. repens, Phragmites karka and Saccharum spontaneum, along with the climbers Aniseia martinicensis and Merremia hederacea, and the large herbs Polygonum barbatum and Polygonum celebicum.
Three swamp forest vegetation types can be recognized at DSNP, namely dwarf swamp forest, stunted swamp forest and tall swamp forest. Tall swamp forest is found in areas that are shallowly flooded for shorter periods, and is locally called hutan pepah. Depending on the locally common species, an appropriate suffix is added, for example hutan pepah kelansau or hutan pepah emang. Stunted swamp forest is termed hutan rawa or gelgah, and similarly, one may for example have gelgah menungau, gelgah kamsia or gelgah kenarin depending on local conditions and dominant tree species. Dwarf forest of any type is called rampak, and dwarf swamp forest is called rampak gelgah. A fourth type that is very similar to stunted swamp forest is riparian forest, which occurs on levees of larger rivers in the Park.
Dwarf swamp forest is characterized by trees and shrubs 5-8 meters tall, and may be flooded more than 11 months per year (average 9.5 months). At times this vegetation is almost entirely submerged, as waters may be 5.5 meters deep. Common species are Barringtonia acutangula (putat), Carallia bracteata (kayu tahun), Croton cf. ensifolius (melayak), Garcinia borneensis (empanak), Gardenia tentaculata (landak), Ixora mentanggis (mentangis), Pternandra teysmanniana (gelagan), Memecylon edule (kebesi), Syzygium claviflora (masung) and Timonius salicifolius (kerminit). Some species may be locally dominant, to the virtual exclusion of all other species.
Stunted swamp forest is charcterized by small to medium-sized trees 8-15(-22) meters tall. It is flooded 4-8 months annually (average 6 months), with waters of up to 3.5 meters deep. This habitat is highly fire-prone and subjected to regular burning in the dry season. It is estimated that about a quarter of this habitat has been burnt over the past decades. Based on species composition, two main stunted swamp forest vegetation types may be recognized, namely Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia vegetation, and Kawi-Kamsia vegetation.
Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia stunted swamp forest is probably the most widespread, and is characterized by Diospyros coriacea (kenarin), Vatica cf. umbronata (menungau) and Mesua hexapetalum (kamsia), along with many other species including Cleistanthus sumatranus (kertik), Crudia teysmannii (timba tawang), Fordia splendissima (limau antu), Garcinia bancana (sikup), Homalium caryophyllaceum (pekeras), Ilex cymosa (kayu telor), Microcos cf. stylocarpa (tengkurung asam) and Xanthophyllum affine (merbemban).
Kawi-Kamsia stunted swamp forest is characterized by the same species as the previous type, but includes the dipterocarp Shorea balangeran (kawi), which may dominate locally. Occasionally kawi trees may attain a height of over 30 meters, but on average they are usually 15-22 meters and are often gnarled. This vegetation type is possibly derived from the Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia type by the influence of fire, as Shorea balangeran apppears to be a relatively fire-tolerant species (see below Mackinnon et al., 1983 Giesen, 1987 Dennis et al., 2000).
Climbers such as various rattans Calamus schistoacanthus (duri antu), Calamus tapa (duri tapah), Ceratolobus hallierianus, (duri pelanduk), Psychotria montensis (akar engkerabang), Ficus heterophylla (luwak), Fagraea cf. ceilanica (akar seraya) and akar tulang salai (Annonaceae) are also common to locally very common in the stunted swamp forest (for rattans, see Peters and Giesen, 2000).
Tall swamp forest is dominated by the occurrence of tall (25-30(-35) meter) straight stemmed trees, in areas that are flooded for 2-3 months annually by 1-2.5 meters of water. Peat, with depths of up to four meters may occur locally, but is often absent. Two main vegetation types may be recognized, namely the Kelansau-Emang-Melaban type and the Ramin-Mentangur Kunyit vegetation type.
Kelansau-Emang-Melaban tall swamp forest, characterized by the occurrence of Dryobalanops abnormis (kelansau), Hopea mengerawan (emang) and Tristaniopsis obovata (melaban) is the most common type of tall swamp forest. Additional species found in this habitat include Calophyllum species (mentangur), Dichilanthe borneensis (berus), Gluta pubescens (kebaca), Gluta walichii (rengas manuk), Ilex cymosa (kayu telor), Shorea balangeran (kawi), Teysmanniodendron sarawakanum (mutun) and Vatica ressak (resak).
Ramin-Mentangur kunyit tall swamp forest may formerly have been more widespread, but as Gonystylus bancanus (ramin) is much sought after by commercial timber companies it is now uncommon and occurs only very locally. It is characterized by a very open canopy, and an undergrowth characterized by the tall sedge Tetraria borneensis (lembang). Dominant tree species are Ramin and Calophyllum sclerophyllum (mentangur) kunyit), along with Dichilanthe borneensis (berus), Garcinia rostrata (sikup rimba), Shorea balangeran (kawi), Syzygium durifolium (ubah) and Tristaniopsis obovata (melaban).
Riparian forest in much of the area appears to have many of the same species as the Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia stunted swamp forest, but is characterized by the presence of typical riparian species such as Gluta renghas (rengas) and Lagerstroemia speciosa (bungur), along with Antidesma stipulare (engkunik), Artocarpus teysmannii (cempedak air), Dillenia excelsa (ringin), Elaeocarpus cf. sphaerocarpa (menyawai), Excoecaria indica (kebuau), Ficus microcarpa (jabai), Hopea dasyrrhachis (tekam air), Mallotus sumatranus (belantik), and Pternandra galeata (kelusuk bujang). This vegetation type occurs on levees of the larger rivers in the Park (e.g. Tawang, Belitung, Empanang), and has a flooding regime similar to that of the stunted swamp forest.
Dryland habitats at DSNP occur on the isolated hills scattered throughout the area (Pegah, Semanggit, Sempadan, Semujan, Tekenang), and the low ranges to the west, northeast, and east of the Park. Because this habitat formed only a minor element in the original 80,000 hectare reserve, it has not received much emphasis in the habitat studies to date. Based on physiognomy, two main dryland primary vegetation types can be recognized, namely hill forest and heath forest. In addition, various secondary vegetation types occur, mainly as a result of clearing and burning of these primary vegetation types.
Hill forests are dominated by dipterocarp species such as Anisoptera grossivenia (penyau), Dipterocarpus gracilis (tempurau), Shorea leprosula (rup) and S. seminis (kerintak). These trees are tall to very tall, with emergents attaining 35-45 meters. Hill forests occur on the slopes of isolated hills and along ranges, where soils are moister and less sandy (i.e. with significant clay content). In some areas, for example at Bukit Semanggit, Dayak forest gardens (tembawang) occur where certain dipterocarps such as tempurau are nurtured for the periodic harvesting of the oil-containing nuts. Heath forest--also known as kerangas--is a stunted forest with trees of (20)22-26 meters. The canopy is open, while the trees have slender trunks and are pole-like. This vegetation type occurs on sandy soils west of the Park, on top of Bukit Semujan and on the flat tops of hills in the Menyukung range to the southeast of the Park. Small areas of a wetter type of heath forest known as kerapah occurs on leached, sandy soil at t he base of hills to the west of the Park. Common heath forest species include Baeckia frutescens, Koompassia malaccensis (menggeris), Lithocarpus species (kempilik), Lycopodium cernuum, Nepenthes ampullaria, N. mirabilis, Shorea laevis (masang), S. seminis (kerintak), Syzygium species, Tristaniopsis obovata and Vatica cinerea (resak padi). Secondary scrub occurs on abandoned former sites of shifting cultivation (ladang) and areas formerly cleared for settlements. These patches are small and constitute only a minor element, as these infertile hills have generally not been cultivated. Secondary scrub vegetation is characterized by a profusion of ferns (esp. Pteridium aquilinum), shrublets Melastoma malabathricum and Rhodomyrtus tormentosa, various Macaranga species and a hill variety of Fagraea fragrans (tembesu).
Fire is an all-important factor controlling vegetation patterns at DSNP. From studies of remote sensing imagery, combined with ground truthing, it is apparent that 18 percent of the 80,000 hectare reserve (= 24.8% of reserve forests) have been affected by fire over the past decades (see Dennis et al., 2000). Vegetation studies of 27 formerly forested areas that had been burnt during the past decade showed that the species that most often survive a fire are: Shorea balangeran (kawi in 80% of fires), Crudia teysmannia (timba tawang 65%), Mesua hexapetalum (kamsia 51%) and Syzygium sp. 120 (tengelam 51%). This does not mean that many trees survive a fire: for a given fire survival may vary between 0-25 percent of all trees. On average, however, about 1-3 percent of all trees appear to survive a typical fire. Survival is important for recruitment, and relatively fire-tolerant species such as the aforementioned four are most likely to form an important element in the recovering vegetation. Of these four specie s, kawi survives in the greatest numbers. A second important element in areas recovering from fires are the pioneer species i.e. those species that newly establish themselves from propagules (seeds, fruit). The most important pioneer species observed at burnt sites at DSNP are shrubs Croton cf. ensifolius (melayak), Ixora mentanggis (mentangis) and Timonius salicifolius (kerminit), and the herbs Polygonum spp. lembung and kumpai (various grasses).
Dwarf swamp forests are very low in plant diversity, having an average of only 10 species per transect of 10 by 100 meters (0.1 ha), and a maximum of 15 species. Stunted swamp forest is somewhat richer, with an average of 17-18 species per transect and a total of 60 species. Most diverse among the wetland habitats is tall swamp forest, with an average of 20-29 species and a total of 127 species. Riparian forests are of intermediate diversity, having about 20 species on average, and a total of 35 species. Plant diversity in the various wetland habitat types is low compared to Malesian lowland forest, where 120-180 species may be found in a one hectare plot (Whitmore, 1984). It is comparable to Southeast Asian peat swamp forests such as in Peninsular Malaysia, where tree species diversity of 0.4-1.0 hectare plots may range from 54 (Shamsudin and Chong, 1992) to 132 (Ibrahim, 1997), and more than 150 plant species have been recorded by Latiff (1997). Peat swamp forests of Sarawak appear to be more diverse, and A nderson (1963) recorded 242 tree species alone in this habitat. The variety of habitat types in the Danau Sentarum area contributes to overall diversity. The total of 262 plant species recorded in the swamp forests of Danau Sentarum is almost identical to that of the swamp forests of Berbak National Park in Jambi, Sumatra, where Giesen (1991) recorded a total of 261 plant species. At DSNP 73 percent are trees and shrubs, while at Berbak this figure is 67 percent. This figure for DSNP (191) is intermediate between Pensinsular Malaysia and Sarawak.
Endert (1927) describes similar forests from the lake district of the Mahakam River in East Kalimantan, but these forests have now largely disappeared, and the Mahakam lakes have subsequently become choked with floating aquatic weeds, especially waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (pers. comm. Head of Provincial Planning Bureau, "Bappeda," East Kalimantan, 1993). In addition, formerly forested areas around the Mahakam lakes have become infested with the exotic Giant Mimosa Mimosa pigra. Swamp forests along the east coast of Sumatra are taller and of a quite different species composition, perhaps owing to the higher nutrient levels of waters. Lakes and swamp forests along the Siak Kecil River in Riau, Sumatra, occur on deep to very deep peat, and few species are shared with DSNP (Giesen and van Balen, 1992).
Plant species shared between Danau Sentarum and a number of key freshwater wetlands in South and Southeast Asia are summarized in Figure 2. Floristically, DSNP is most similar to the swamp forests of Berbak (Jambi, Sumatra), Sungai Negara (South Kalimantan) and Tasek Bera (Peninsular Malaysia), with which it shares 42, 46 and 48 species, respectively. If easily dispersed (and often "weedy") herbaceous species and exotics are excluded, Danau Sentarum is most similar to Berbak, with which it shares 31 trees and shrubs. 13 tree and shrub species are shared with the Ogan Komering lebaks in South Sumatra this low figure is probably due to the long history of logging and burning, which has impoverished the woody vegetation in this part of South Sumatra. Only 3-4 non-exotic tree and shrub species are shared with Tonle Sap (Cambodia) and Tanguar Haor (Bangladesh), namely Barringtonia acutangula, Crateva religiosa, Ficus heterophylla and Melastoma malabathricum. Forests around Tonle Sap are highly disturbed and few m ature stands remain. Barringtonia-dominated swamp forest vegetation occurs westward up to Afghanistan and India (Heyne, 1950), but these forests are invariably greatly disturbed and poor in species. In Bangladesh last vestiges of depleted swamp forest remain in the haor region in the northeastern part of the country (Giesen and Rashid, 1997).
Although once very similar to Danau Sentarum, the Mahakam lakes have changed significantly, as most of the forests have disappeared or are greatly disturbed, lake waters are choked with waterhyacinth, and fisheries have declined dramatically (Dunn and Otte, 1983 Bappeda, pers. comm. 1993). As waterhyacinth was already present in the Mahakam in 1925, the more recent proliferation of this weed species in the lakes is probably due to changes in nutrient status of the waters. This appears to be linked with changes in the catchment, as Dunn and Otte (1983) show that the decline in Mahakam lakes fisheries (from late 1960s onwards) coincided with increased logging in the Mahakam River basin. At Danau Sentarum, water acidity and nutrient status appear to be limiting waterhyacinth growth. According to Oki et at. (1978) and Carlander (1980), the threshold level of [Ca.sup.2+] for waterhyacinth growth is 120 [micro]Mol/liter (= 4.8 mg/l), which is 4.5-24 times the average [Ca.sup.+2] concentration found in the Kapuas l akes (Giesen, 1987). This also explains why waterhyacinth survives in village waters and near the Kapuas River, as nutrient levels are higher in these locations.
Flooding and habitat types
The single most important factor governing the distribution of the different vegetation types is depth and duration of flooding, and structurally, the stunted swamp forest of Danau Sentarum is very similar to the Varzea swamp forests of Amazonia (Richards, 1972), where similar flooding regimes occur. Dwarf swamp forest is flooded on average for a period of 9.5 months per year, by water depths with an average maximum of 5.5 meters. During some years, such as 1995, flooding is year-round, and this vegetation may be (partly-) submerged for up to 21 months at a time. Stunted swamp forest is flooded for an average of 6 months per year, with waters of up to 3.5 meters deep, while for tall swamp forest these figures are 2-3 months and 1-2.5 meters. The flooding regime appears to have a greater effect on vegetation structure (dwarf, stunted, tall forest) than on floristic composition, as there is no apparent correlation with the latter. All tree species examined in Danau Sentarum's swamp forests appear to have growth rings. These may be associated with the flooding regime, as annual floods lead to a period of relative dormancy, and the drier period is a time of growth.
Flowering and fruiting of trees and shrubs at Danau Sentarum show a degree of synchronicity linked with flooding. Although there are always a number of trees and shrubs that flower or bear fruit, there is a marked increase as floodwaters rise. This has not gone unnoticed, as local fishermen are well aware that the arrival of the migratory bees (Apis dorsata) that form the basis of the local honey industry (Rouquette, 1995), occurs simultaneously with the rise of the floodwaters. There is an ecological advantage for flowering and fruiting in the wet season, as the fruits of many species float and are dispersed by flood waters. An interesting characteristic is that many local swamp forest fruits are sour, even when fully ripe, probably due to high levels of citric and ascorbic acids (Vitamin C). This is possibly parallel to the situation in Amazonia, where many fruits are dispersed by fish that are attracted by sour fruit. This response is selected upon, as fish are unable to produce these essential compounds ( pers. comm. C. Peters, 1994).
Differences between soil types appear to be less important in determining vegetation patterns than the flooding regime. Tall swamp forest occurs both on peat and mineral soil, but the two types of tall swamp forest recognized, Kelansau-Emang-Melaban and Ramin-Mentangur, are not strongly linked with either soil type. The distinction between hill forest and heath forest is strongly determined by soil type and geomorphology. Hill forest at DSNP occurs on slopes where the soil has a large fraction of clay minerals and where soil moisture is higher, whereas heath forest occurs on areas with leached, dry, sandy soils.
Both the Malay and Dayak ethnic groups of the region traditionally practice swidden or ladang. Dayak generally practice ladang in dryland areas, while Malay cultivate the levees of larger rivers. As most of the hills in and immediately adjacent the Park have highly infertile soils, there are few Dayak ladang and their impact is small. Dayak ladang are significant only on the hills near Lanjak, around Gunung Kenepai south-west of the Park, and in the Lempai range west of DSNP. Ladang practices of the Malay probably have a greater effect on DSNP, as it leads to direct loss of riparian habitat. This habitat is small in area, and it is estimated that already more than half of the Park's riparian forests had been lost to shifting cultivation by 1994, especially along the Tawang, Tengkidap and Belitung/Ketam rivers. Where fields have been abandoned for a long time, a secondary vegetation type appears dominated mainly by a few shrubby species rather than taller trees characteristic of the original vegetation. The cl earing of sites for settlements has a very localized direct effect, and only a small area (35 ha) has been cleared to date for this purpose. However, as settlements are located on the levees of the major streams, this contributes to pressures on vulnerable riparian habitat.
Commercial logging commenced in the Danau Sentarum area south of the Menyukung range to the southeast of the Park in 1978. In the 1980s, four logging concessions bordered on the Park and concentrated on selective logging of tall swamp forest. By the mid-1990s these companies had stopped or were on the verge of closing down, as most tall swamp forests in and around the Park had been logged. There is evidence that (illegal) logging has commenced again since 1997 (Wadley et al., 2000). Logging occurred in a number of tall swamp forest areas within the 80,000-hectare reserve prior to gazettal in 1982, including 200 hectares at Danau Pemera and 150 hectares south of Bukit Pegah. Most of these selectively logged forests are regenerating well, and are expected to have retained most plant species. Fast growing tree species such as Calophyllum Mentangur species tend to dominate these regenerating swamp forests. The lack of commercially interesting timber in the dwarf and stunted swamp forests of Danau Sentarum protect ed these areas from logging. A more insidious type of logging is the small scale felling of trees that takes place within the Park by local inhabitants. Much of this concentrates on timber for local use, and specifically targets Shorea balangeran and Fagraea fragrans, and large specimens of the latter are becoming rare (Peters, 1994).
Reports of forest fires in the Danau Sentarum area date back to the last century. Ida Pfeiffer (1856) observed extensive areas of burnt stumps, while Gerlach (1881) reports of extensive fires in the forests in the northwestern part of the current park, near Pulau Majang. Molengraaff (1900) records fisherfolk igniting the forest during the dry season, but Polak (1949) could not find traces of burnt forest in spite of specifically looking for them. Vaas (1952) suggested that the latter may be explained by a lack of fishing during the Second World War. Studies carried out by UK-ITFMP show that the incidence of burning has increased significantly since 1990, but causes remain speculative (see Dennis et at., 2000).
Both dwarf and stunted swamp forests at Danau Sentarum are prone to fires, possibly due to the accumulation of large amounts of organic matter in the wet months, in combination with desiccation in the dry season. As van Steenis (1957) pointed out, "Fire is one of the greatest enemies of the swamp forest . this type of forest is definitely flammable and is attacked by fishermen." Most fires are caused by human activities, and the more pronounced a dry season, the higher the number of fires and extent of burning (Aglionby, 1997). Studies of pioneer and surviving plant species in burnt areas at DSNP strongly suggest that forests subjected to (infrequent) fires are characterized by fire-tolerant surviving species such as kawi, kamsia, timba tawang and tengelam. This indicates that Shorea balangeran-dominated stunted swamp forest may be derived from the more diverse Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia stunted swamp forest by irregular burning. This supports the hypothesis by MacKinnon (1983) about the origin of Shorea balan geran-dominated forests in the Tanjung Puting National Park in Central Kalimantan.
Areas that are more frequently burnt are likely to be dominated by rapidly colonizing, shrubby pioneer species such as kerminit, melayak and mentangis shrubs, which are dominant species of the dwarf swamp forest. Large areas of this dwarf swamp forest occur in the northern and northwestern part of the Park, in areas where stunted swamp forest is to be expected on the basis of flooding depth and duration. While this habitat appears to be linked with deep and prolonged flooding, it is apparently also connected with repeated burning. A similar pattern was found by Giesen (1989) in the Sungai Negara swamp forests of South Kalimantan, where infrequent fires lead to domination by Shorea balangeran and Combretocarpus rotundifolius, while more frequently burnt areas were dominated by Melaleuca cajuputi (gelam).
The study was carried out in two phases: in 1986 for the World Wide Fund for Nature (then World Wildlife Fund), and funded by the Royal Netherlands Government, and in 1993-94 as part of the UK-Indonesia Tropical Forest Management Project, funded by the British Overseas Development Administration (now Department for International Development). The Danau Sentarum Management Project of UK-ITFMP was implemented by the Indonesia Programme of the Asian Wetland Bureau (now Wetlands International-Asia Pacific), together with the Indonesian Directorate General of Nature Protection and Conservation (PKA then PHPA) and KSDA Sub-balai West Kalimantan. The author would like to extend his gratitude to PKA, KSDA, WWF, Netherlands Government, DfID and Wetlands International for being allowed and enabled to carry out these studies. I would also like to extend my sincere gratitude to the people of Danau Sentarum, without whom this study would have been impossible.
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The famous architect Ti stepping out of his tomb to offer to build Chim's new palace in Florida, 1912
The estate property originally consisted of 180 acres (73 ha) of shoreline Mangrove swamps and dense inland native tropical forests. Being a conservationist, Deering sited the development of the estate portion along the shore to conserve the forests. This portion was to include the villa, formal gardens, recreational amenities, expansive lagoon gardens with new islets, potager and grazing fields, and a village services compound. Deering began construction of Vizcaya in 1912 officially beginning occupancy on Christmas Day 1916 when he arrived aboard his yacht Nepenthe.  
The villa was built primarily between 1914 and 1922, at a cost of $15 million,  while the construction of the extensive elaborate Italian Renaissance gardens and the village continued into 1923. During the World War I years building trades and supplies were difficult to acquire in Florida. Vizcaya is noteworthy for adapting historical European aesthetic traditions to South Florida's subtropical ecoregion. For example it combined imported French and Italian garden layouts and elements implemented in Cuban limestone stonework with Floridian coral architectural trim and planted with sub-tropic compatible and native plants that thrived in the habitat and climate. Palms and Philodendrons had not been represented in the emulated gardens of Tuscany or Île-de-France.
During his internship in the Fall of 2020, Trevor Bryant, a PhD candidate in Atlantic History at Florida International University found that the Vizcaya could not have been built without black migrant workers, predominantly from the Bahamas. While numerous photographs exist of the laborers, due to their station, records of their names have not been found in most of the documentation that exist today and were probably not written. The only way to tell their job or status is through their clothing. Men who wore aprons were stone masons. If they wore jackets they were workgroup supervisors. The photographs themselves, dated from 1914 to 1921, reveal just how central they were to Vizcaya's history. 
Letter, Deering to Chalfin, discussing purchase of tapestries
Deering used Vizcaya as his winter residence from 1916 until his death in 1925. Paul Chalfin, a former art curator, painter, and interior designer, was the project's director.  He assisted and encouraged Deering to collect art items, antiquities, and architectural elements for the project. Chalfin recommended the architect F. Burrall Hoffman to design the structural and envelope of the villa, garden pavilions, and estate outbuildings. The landscape master plan and individual gardens were designed with the Colombian landscape designer Diego Suarez, who had trained with Sir Harold Acton at the gardens of Villa La Pietra outside Florence, Italy. 
Caravel suspended from the ceiling at Vizcaya
The estate's name refers to the northern Spanish province Vizcaya (In English Biscay), in the Basque region along the east Atlantic's Bay of Biscay, as 'Vizcaya' is on the west Atlantic's Biscayne Bay. Records indicate Deering wished the name also to commemorate an early Spaniard named Vizcaya who he thought explored the area, although later he was corrected that the explorer's name was Sebastián Vizcaíno. Deering used the Caravel, a type of ship style used during the 'Age of Exploration', as the symbol and emblem of Vizcaya. A representation of the mythical explorer "Bel Vizcaya" welcomes visitors at the entrance to the property.
Vizcaya's villa exterior and garden architecture is a composite of different Italian Renaissance villas and gardens, with French Renaissance parterre features, based on visits and research by Chalfin, Deering, and Hoffman. The villa facade's primary influence is the Villa Rezzonico designed by Baldassarre Longhena at Bassano del Grappa in the Veneto region of northern Italy.    It is referred to sometimes as the "Hearst Castle of the East". 
Telephone at Vizcaya Museum and Gardens
Vizcaya Museum also features gilded era technology. There are old doorbells, a dumbwaiter and a rotary-dial telephone. Vizcaya’s telephone system was the first one in Miami-Dade County.
James Deering died in September 1925, on board the steamship SS City of Paris en route back to the United States. After his death Vizcaya was inherited by his two nieces, Marion Deering McCormick, wife of Chauncey McCormick, and Barbara Deering Danielson, wife of Richard Ely Danielson. Over the decades, after hurricanes and increasing maintenance costs, they began selling the estate's surrounding land parcels and outer gardens. In 1945 they sold significant portions of the Vizcaya property to the Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine, Florida, to build Miami's Mercy Hospital. 50 acres (200,000 m 2 ) comprising the main house, the formal gardens, and the village were retained.  
In 1952 Miami-Dade County acquired the villa and formal Italian gardens, needing significant restoration, for $1 million. Deering's heirs donated the villa's furnishings and antiquities to the County-Museum.   Vizcaya began operation in 1953 as the Dade County Art Museum. The village and remaining property were acquired by the County during the mid-1950s. In 1994 the Vizcaya estate was designated as a National Historic Landmark.  In 1998, in conjunction with Vizcaya's reaccreditation process by the American Alliance of Museums, the Vizcaya Museum and Gardens Trust was formed to be the museum's governing body.
Campus Commons is nestled along the American River Parkway between Fair Oaks Boulevard and Howe Avenue. It is one of Sacramento’s most low-key luxury communities surrounded by lush greenery, recreational opportunity and urban amenities.
Developed by Robert Powell in the ‘70s, Sacramento Magazine recently listed it as one of the area’s ten great neighborhoods, touting it as a great place for easy living. How easy? The homeowners’ association handles most of the home maintenance projects as well as maintaining the lush landscaping the neighborhood is known for.
The planned development is comprised of approximately 1,160 single-family homes, a combination of both stand-alone and attached (townhome/condo). It sprawls over 680 acres with miles of paved walkways meandering throughout the neighborhood. The Commons, as it is known, is comprised of two distinct communities – The Village of Campus Commons and the Nepenthe Association. Both foster a resort-living lifestyle with two lakes, clubhouse facilities, swimming pools, spas, tennis courts, a greenbelt, and children’s play area.
Convenient access to the American River, American River Parkway, and 32-mile Jedediah Smith Memorial Bike Trail, as well as the nearby Campus Commons Golf Course, make it a haven for those who thrive from being in the outdoors.
Its convenience is further boosted with its proximity to downtown, Sacramento State University, Rio Del Oro Racquet and Swim Club, and numerous upscale shopping areas (Loehmann’s Plaza, Lyon Village and The Pavilions). Nearby schools include Sierra Oaks Elementary, and Sacramento Day Country Private School.