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(YP-2384: t. 17; 1. 48'8"; b. 10'0"; dr. 5'0"; s. 14 k.;
cpl. 7; a. none)
Floyd Hurst (YP-2384), a wooden motor launch built by the Norfolk Navy Yard in 1902, was purchased by the Navy 27 February 1918 at Norfolk from T. C. Hurst of that city and immediately placed in service as a patrol and dispatch boat between the Washington Navy Yard and the naval base at Indian Head, Md. She continued this duty throughout her naval service and was renamed Guard 7 January 1921. Guard was sold to P. M. Anderson of Washington, D.C., 5 August 1921.
Guard III YP-2384 - History
About our Tintype Restoration
What are Atique Tintypes?
Our expert was first to restore 1834 tintypes while restorers saw 1920 as their antique.
If a tintype is faded to black, we can get it back. Our specialist will date-history to yours.
Our tintype specialist will give a previewed free -pricing, mail-reimbursement by check.
We have never lost a tintype with US Mail, certified signature-return-receipt (green card).
Today's glass-covered Ambrotypes are still mushy. Don't open tintypes with glass on them.
The Daguerreotype photo is from 1834, Ambrotype photo from 1841, Ferrotype is from 1863.
Our Photo Restoration Standard
In 1999, other local restorers did very little restoring. When we began we offered much more.
Then others followed our photo industry lead. Today, we lead with examples of excellence.
Each and every photo restore, especially our tintypes are team inspected for quality control.
In 1999, photo restoration was extremely high priced. Our concern was to place standards.
We began with 1990 pricing. Competitors did not conform to our lower pricing any which way.
Through years, we persevered and after 15 years, we influenced local pricing. (National too).
At first, only a few replicated our low pricing, still today, others price their service much higher.
A few in our industry have been inspired to lowering their prices, and then raised them again.
Today, we preview a photograph then set a written price, owner-signed, copy furnished to you.
Even if you are in another State, we send our written pricing via PDF attached email to you.
From there, it's your call to ask questions, input feedback or to give your approval to restore.
Then we will give our best restoration - which in our opinion is the best photo restoration ever.
Tintypes, the First Photograph - a Complete History
In 1813 in Chalon sur Saone, France, Frenchman, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce , a scientist,
began experimenting with herographs. Niépce placed transparent engravings on glass plates
coated with light-sensitive varnish mix. Exposed to light, it copied an image onto glass.
Niépce had some success in copying engravings, but had no success until two years later
before he found pewter plates to support his media. He repeatedly used bitumen knowing this
would lead to a clear image.
By 1826 , in an upper-story window workroom in Le Gras, Niepce set up his newest invention,
his camera-obscure, placing a polished pewter plate coated with bitumen of Judea, a
petroleum asphalt derivative, as his chemical of choice to 'burn' an image on different metals.
Each experiment took many hours and many days sometimes to develop some kind of image.
After at least one day of a long exposure and washing his plate with a mixture of Oil of Lavender
and white petroleum, his mixture dissolved some of the bitumen which had not been hardened
by light. The image recorded was from his upstairs window, his lens pointed to the court yard
below, that image was faint, as it hardened on a glass plate. He called his first invention a
herograph since he had been experimenting to develop a negative, as his journal described it.
After several attempts to patent his invention, Niépce gave up on his experiments but kept his
journals intact. He registered his invention as a 'herograph' a the Royal Society of England.
Soon after, he had passed away at a relatively young age, without any celebration or notoriety.
In place of Niépce, his partner, Louis Jacques Daguerre, an artist, took over the experiments.
He changed the name of the image to "Photographie" noting a positive, instead of a negative.
The word 'photographie' was also in the Greek language meaning "drawing with light".
I n 1839 Daguerre used Niepce's image calling it "court yard of La Gras" as the first image, then
registered the image as his own invention "Photographie" with Royal Society of England.
Later in 1839, in a lecture before the Royal Society of England on March 14, Sir John Herschel
accredited Daguerre for his registered offering of a patented 'photographie', mentioning that
the invention shall be known as "Daguerre-type" to the entire world. But, at the same time,
accredited Niepce's offering for the patent of a 'herograph' noting his image was firs t recorded.
However, in the end, Herschel never separated the two inventors, noting both were instrumental
with registering their inventions, although the two registers were the same image.
Finally In 1852, historian Helmut Gernsheim, verified the first authentic photograph image and
returned fame to Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, as first registered at the Royal Society of England.
It was held that Joseph Nice'phore Niépce was the first inventor of the same image, patented
as a "herograph" and also patented as a "photographie" in 1839.
Of course, we know it as 'photograph' but the first 'photograph' was not patented in the USPTO,
(the United States Patent and Trademark Office) until John Ambrose patented his invention.
3 Type of Tintypes, the Tintype Case, and How Cabinet Cards Evolved
Da g uerro-t yp e (also Daguerre) was patented by Louis J. Daguerre as mentioned above.
Ambrost yp e - 1841 was born by John Ambrose who patented the American 'photograph' which
was our first positive black & white image. This type of photo never dried like Dagerre's, it was
to be covered, sealed within glass, never to be opened. A broken seal would leak light through
the edge making a prism, damaging the photograph. If your seal is broken, your image will be
a negative if tilted, then a positive when tilted back. If not, this tintype will not need restoring.
The Ambrostype lasted until 1863, replaced by another popular photograph recipe.
Ferrot yp e - 1856 Patented on February 19th, 1856 by Hamilton Smith in the USA, (no picture)
Hamilton read about its emulsion as its recipe was written by Adoph Alexandre' Martin in 1853
in France. Both men found a fast drying emulsion, didn't need glass, was durable metal, was
inexpensive and it was truly our first instant photograph. There were many tintype tents whose
photographers would setup in parks and his customers would line up for their photographs.
For color, the photographs were dabbed with an assortment of 8 different chemicals mixtures
which made its color once mixed with albumen. The Army was compulsory about the color of
their uniforms, either blue or gray. Photographers were superb artists mixing the colors.
The Ferrotype was placed into leather cases . The ferrotype case was a box-frame, opening like
a book with leather or vinyl bounding at the yoke. In front was an ornate carving in the leather.
If vinyl, there were no carvings. Inside the "book" the photo was framed by brass but gilded
oand shaped into an oval and it clipped onto the box-frame. Some tintypes became loosened
and were separated from the box. Some were lost in the Plains area during travel in covered
wagons, some found were without frames as their corners appeared clipped where they
clipped onto the frame body inside the brass surround. Its recipe repeated in the Polaroid.
Collot y pes - also "Calotypes"
Recipe patent was 1840 before ferrotype was almost the same recipe for prints on paper.
Invented by William Henry Fox Talbot of UK, they were used after the Ferrotype photo.
While the 1840s had other “types” with images developed on polished metal (tins),
Talbot found an albumen recipe produced an fain t image on paper - large, in the 13X19 sizes.
Paper photos were far less imaged than tintypes. Photos leading to the 1850s were a technical
change as great artists who produced these photographs were thought of as a first rank.
Many of them were highly qualified painters who produced ambitious works of art, all of which
looked like real tintype photographs, although they very much lacked luster of earlier "types".
Made mostly for the high social ranks, Collotypes were actually a handcrafted artistry.
Although Talbot tried to control his patent rights, by the late 1840s, French photographers
including Louis-Adolphe Humbert de Molard in Normandy, Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard in
Lille, and Gustave Le Gray in Paris were circumventing their potential of the calotype photos. In
1851, Calotype was renamed as Collotype. After that, more photographic scientists had found
new recipes for the Collotype photos and this type of photo became more popular later in 1918
as the Ferrotype waned from popularity in 1917 and plastic film was invented and being used.
The final transition between Ferrotype era and plastic film, was 1934 when it ruled the World.
The Carte de Visite - 1854 a paper photo calling card, patented by Andre' Engene Disderi.
The carte de visite added popularity to the popular Collotypes, and later popular Cabinet Cards.
Patented in Paris, France - it was made of albumen print on paper mounted on a thicker paper.
Its size was a small 2.1 inches X 3.5 inches, much like a business card in the United States.
In 1854, Disdéri had also patented a method of taking eight separate negatives on a single
plate, which reduced production costs. The Carte de Visite was slow to gain widespread use
until 1859, but when Disdéri published photos in this format for Emperor Napoleon III, this
made the format so popular it was known as "cardomania" and eventually spread World-Wide.
Cabinet Cards supplanted Carte de Visite to a larger version of 4.5in. X 6.5in (4X6 later).
The Cabinet Card
Great artists, highly skilled painters, reproduced works of art from tintype images, placed
images onto plates to be printed on the mimeograph, patented in 1876 by Thomas Edison who
hoped to produce "all new" photographs, (but the machine wasn't utilized until 1887, below)
The first of Edison's prints were faint at best, people rejected the images placing them in
cabinets to forget, they became known as " those Cabinet Cards" .
Albert Blake Dick (A.B Dick Company) first licensed Thomas Edison's mimeograph in 1887 as
a stencil system, reproducing tintype images. Hoping to resurrect Cabinet Cards, his company
moved forward too fast. As they developed better print methods, they skipped over Cabinet
Cards. One recipe for print was from a wax impression which later became the normal print
method for newspaper printing with its metal impression on metal plate rolls, which turned fast
inside newspaper printing machines.
1870 and 1881 Plastic Rolled Film First, Hannibal Goodwin had the recipe to make clear
plastic celluloid plastic which would be used in film. In 1881, Peter Houston of Wisconsin
(no picture available) made rolled plastic and it was shiny for chemicals to stick like tintypes.
Then, Peter passed away. His brother David took over his invention, immediately sold its
license to George Eastman for $5000, thus, losing the product forever, never to make a cent.
1988 Eastman-Kodak compan y - George Eastman developed a camera which would receive
rolled film, furthering Kodak from a New York loft expanding business space another 4 floors.
1891 Movin g Pictures Edison-Eastman partnered with an idea to develop Kinetoscope further
developing their plastic film into a newer, faster camera with bigger, brighter electric light bulbs.
The X-ray vacuum tube was soon after.
The Task of Winning the War
On December 7, 1941, the U.S. was thrust into World War II when Japan launched a surprise attack on the American naval fleet at Pearl Harbor. The following day, America and Great Britain declared war on Japan. On December 10, Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.
Did you know? During World War II, as an alternative to rationing, Americans planted “victory gardens,” in which they grew their own food. By 1945, some 20 million such gardens were in use and accounted for about 40 percent of all vegetables consumed in the U.S.
In the earliest days of America’s participation in the war, panic gripped the country. If the Japanese military could successfully attack Hawaii and inflict damage on the naval fleet and casualties among innocent civilians, many people wondered what was to prevent a similar assault on the U.S. mainland, particularly along the Pacific coast.
This fear of attack translated into a ready acceptance by a majority of Americans of the need to sacrifice in order to achieve victory. During the spring of 1942, a rationing program was established that set limits on the amount of gas, food and clothing consumers could purchase. Families were issued ration stamps that were used to buy their allotment of everything from meat, sugar, fat, butter, vegetables and fruit to gas, tires, clothing and fuel oil. The United States Office of War Information released posters in which Americans were urged to 𠇍o with less–so they’ll have enough” (“they” referred to U.S. troops). Meanwhile, individuals and communities conducted drives for the collection of scrap metal, aluminum cans and rubber, all of which were recycled and used to produce armaments. Individuals purchased U.S. war bonds to help pay for the high cost of armed conflict.
Guard III YP-2384 - History
The Third coil was processed during commissioning of the third continuous pre-painting line.
YPC reviewed by the authentication of the "High Tech Enterprise".
The fourth continuous hot-dip galvanizing line commissioned.
YPC acquired new version certification of IATF 16949 quality management system which applies to automotive-related products and service.
Signed a "five-in-one" base cooperation framework agreement with Changshu Institute of Technology to comprehensively deepen industry-university-research cooperation.
Passed the new version upgrade certification of IECQ QC080000 Hazardous Substance Process Management System requirements.
Passed the new version transfer certification of ISO45001 Occupational Health And Safety Management System requirements (The original OHSAS18001 System Certification is transferred to the new ISO45001 System Certification)
ADDRESS:YIEHPHUI ROAD,RIVERSIDE INDUSTRIAL PARK CHANGSHU ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ZONE JIANGSU,PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Designing an Ideal Prognostic Model for Pediatric Acute Liver Failure
A prognostic model in medicine is designed to produce indices to enable the estimation of the risk of future events in individual patients/groups and to risk stratify these patients. 9 Figure 2 highlights the principles behind ideal derivation, assessment, and validation of a prognostic model. Prior to deriving a predictive model, its clinical relevance should be clear, and it should be aimed at aiding clinicians in decision making. Prognostication in PALF is essential for clinical practice to accurately differentiate patients who are likely to survive or die so emergency LT can be allocated appropriately. The ideal model-derivation population should be large, representative of the diseased cohort, and entail a reasonable proportion of the outcome measures. The outcome measures should be clearly defined. Ideally, PALF prognosis should comprise 2 outcomes: survival and death. However, artificially intervening with LT skews the data because the true outcome for patients undergoing LT is unknown. Variables in a model should be easy to measure and use, ideally objective, and not too extensive. Variables for adult ALF and PALF models are usually derived from univariate and/or multivariate analyses on historical patient cohorts. To test if the variables/models display acceptable predictive reliability, the actual observed and predicted outcomes need to be plotted and compared, in a process called “calibration.” Subsequently, in a process called “discrimination,” the model can be quantified to distinguish between patients who do or do not experience the event. In order to determine discriminatory power, the sensitivity and specificity for the model at different threshold settings must be calculated and then plotted on a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. 10 The area under the curve (AUC) or “c-statistic” summarizes how good the model is at discriminating between outcomes. An AUC or c-statistic of “1.0” would be ideal, representing 100% discrimination however, in practice, AUC/c-statistic > 0.8 is considered acceptable. In PALF, an appropriate balance between sensitivity and specificity is essential, as reduced sensitivity (low positive predictive value) could lead to the failure to list a patient for LT who would have subsequently died, but reduced specificity (low negative predictive value) carries a risk of unnecessary LT in a patient who was likely to recover spontaneously. Once a model demonstrates good calibration and discrimination, it should be tested outside of the derivation data set in a process called “validation.” 11 Validation can take place internally, on a different data set, either retrospectively or prospectively (temporal validation) but external validation (ie, different center) is preferred, in order to test transportability of the model.
Diagram to illustrate the principles of the ideal prognostic model development and validation. The accuracy of the model developed is summarized by (a) calibration and (b) discrimination. A well-calibrated model shows good correlation between observed and predicted mortality with a reasonable “goodness to fit.” Sensitivity and specificity at different threshold settings are plotted on a ROC curve, and discrimination is summarized by the AUC. AUC as close to 1.0 shows optimal sensitivity and specificity (0.8 is acceptable in predictive modeling).
Guard III YP-2384 - History
Welcome to the new home of the M9 bayonet. On this website you will find the most complete history and description of the M9 Bayonet that you will find anywhere. The history starts with the development of the M9 Bayonet by Qual-A-Tec which later formed the company Phrobis III . Phrobis III was formed to interacted with Buck to make the first M9 Bayonets. Buck manufactured M9 bayonets with both Phrobis M9 Bayonet and Buck M9 Bayonet markings for several years. Over time, Buck managed to get control over the supply of the M9 Bayonet in the United States until Lan-Cay underbid Buck in a key military contract. Lastly, in the 1990s the US Military offered for bid a new contract that was split between Lan-Cay and Ontario Knife Works .
These facts and many more are included throughout this website. The information here has been compiled from numerous "experts" and noted collectors who have aided with the development of the content of this website. This is being shared here as the M9 Bayonet is one of the post popular AR15 parts and accessories sold and available as a military surplus item but yet bayonet identification and M9 bayonet history is often confused. We hope that this website is already the ultimate M9 Bayonet resource on the web and that the tools are here to allow everybody to share their photos, questions, and knowledge.
Please browse the pages on the site and visit The Forums . We welcome all visitors to join and share their knowledge of the M9 Bayonet so that this site will continue to grow.
Grossdeutschland: From Ceremonial Guard to Panzer Corps
Despite misconceptions, Grossdeutschland (Greater Germany) was neither a Waffen SS unit nor (officially anyway) a panzer unit, although later on as a supposed panzergrenadier division, was broadly organised as one. Very possibly the German Army's premier formation of World War II, Grossdeutschland grew from a ceremonial guard detachment in Berlin, to become a panzer corps. In many ways it mirrors that of another elite ground formation, the Luftwaffe's Hermann Göring Fallschirmpanzerkorps, which also started out as a small Berlin unit (only in this case, a Police detachment) and ended up a corps-sized unit.
November 1920 &ndash Wach-Regiment Berlin created
June 1921 &ndash Wach-Regiment Berlin disbanded, a smaller unit is then formed, known as the Kommando der Wachtruppe
August 1934 &ndash The Kommando der Wachtruppe is renamed Wachtruppe Berlin
June 1937 - Wachtruppe Berlin expands and is renamed Wach-Regiment Berlin
October 1938 &ndash Elements of Wach-Regiment Berlin are transferred to form Wach-Batallion Wein
June 1939 - Wach-Regiment Berlin is redesignated Infanterie Regiment (Mot) Grossdeutschland
April 1942 &ndash Infanterie Regiment (Mot) Grossdeutschland expands to become Infanterie Division (Mot) Grossdeutschland
June 1943 - Infanterie Division (Mot) Grossdeutschland is redesignated Panzergrenadier-Division Grossdeutschland
November 1944 &ndash Panzer-Korps Grossdeutschland created
The unit can trace its origins back to the creation of Wach-Regiment Berlin, part of the newly forming Reichswehr in late 1920 (after Germany's defeat at the end of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles limited the German Armed Forces to a professional force of 100,000 personnel). Germany, now under a new democratic system of government known as the Weimar Republic, was still relatively unstable after the turmoil at the end of the war. The Government was concerned about possible coup attempts and wanted to create a guard unit for security purposes. Each of the seven divisions of the new Reichswehr would send a company to be part of the guard. However, political tension within the government quickly brought about the disbanding of Wach-Regiment Berlin, which was replaced by the more politically acceptable Kommando der Wachtruppe in mid-1921, which consisted of seven infantry companies and an artillery battery.
After Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power in Germany, the Kommando der Wachtruppe was renamed Wachtruppe Berlin in mid-1934 and then expanded by adding an eighth infantry company and a headquarters in 1936. Generaloberst Werner von Fritsch, then Commander-in-Chief of the Army (Der Heer), then decreed that every unit of the army should send their best drilled soldiers for service (on a rotating basis) with the unit. This expansion continued in mid-1937 when the unit was redesignated Wach-Regiment Berlin, while in late 1938, small numbers of officers and men were transferred to Vienna to help form a new guard unit, Wach-Batallion Wein. In April 1939, in recognition that its troops were drawn not from a particular area as most army units were but from right across Germany, Wach-Regiment Berlin was expanded to a full regiment of four motorised battalions and shortly thereafter, renamed Infanterie-Regiment (Mot) Grossdeutschland. Again, small numbers of officers and men were used to form another guard unit, Wach-Kompanie Berlin, in September 1939.
Following the formation of Wach-Kompanie Berlin in September 1939 under Hauptmann von Bölkow, the unit expanded in April 1940 to become Wach-Batallion Berlin. It was renamed Wach-Batallion Grossdeutschland in October 1942. In late 1943, a detachment under Leutnant Görlitz was sent to act as a guard to King Leopold III of Belgium at the Royal Castle of Laeken. In July 1944, the unit played an important role in preventing the group behind Operation Valkyrie (the coup attempt against Hitler) taking control of several important buildings. In recognition, the unit's commander (Otto Ernst Remer) was promoted to Oberst and in November 1944, the unit expanded to become Wach-Regiment Grossdeutschland. Along with two regiments from the 166th Reserve Division, Wach-Regiment Grossdeutschland helped form the 309th Infantry Division on 1 February 1945, which was redesignated Infanterie-Division Berlin on 7 February 1945. It was destroyed in the battle around Küstrin in April 1945.
Operational History of Grossdeutschland
Sent to the Grafenwöhr Exercise Area and trained as a motorised infantry formation, Grossdeutschland missed the Polish campaign, although a small detachment was formed into a personal bodyguard for the Fuhrer under the unit title of Führer-Begleit-Battalion and saw some service (non-combat) in Poland. The regiment took part in the invasion of France and the Low Countries as part of Guderian's XIX Corps, having the 43rd Engineer Battalion and the 640th Assault Gun Battalion attached. It saw action against both French and British forces and occupied Lyon on 19 June 1940. Reinforced by the 17th Motorcycle Battalion in July, it was stationed in Alsace while training for the planned invasion of the UK, Operation Sealion. After that failed to take place, the unit was reinforced by several artillery and flak units, formed into a regimental combat group and then sent to take part in the invasion of Yugoslavia (April 1941), where it captured the Belgrade radio station. Soon after, it was transferred north to take part in Operation Barbarossa (the invasion of the USSR) on 22 June 1941 supporting the 7th Panzer Division. It fought in the battles for Bialystok and Minsk (24 June &ndash 6 July), the breakthrough on the Dniepr River (7-10 July), the capture of Smolensk (14-20 July) and overrunning Soviet positions around Desna (18-30 August). It was then involved in defence operations around Jelnja (24 July &ndash 22 August) and Desna (18-30 August), involved in the Battle for Kiev (much of September 1941), heavy fighting east of Romny (26 September &ndash 3 October), the double battle of encirclement of Vyasma-Bryansk (10-20 October) and the fighting around Tula (21 October &ndash 5 December). With the Soviet counteroffensive, Grossdeutschland suffered heavy casualties firstly around Tula (where the motorcycle battalion was virtually wiped out) and then near Orel (where it's II Battalion had to be disbanded). By 6 January 1942, Grossdeutschland's casualties on the Eastern Front totalled 900 killed, 3,056 wounded and 114 missing.
Meanwhile, several new GD battalions had been raised, and the decision was taken to upgrade the unit to a full motorised infantry division, which started forming on 3 March 1942 in the Wandern Training Area near Berlin. The original regiment was withdrawn from the line, joining the rest of the division at Rjetschiza on the Dnieper and on 17 April 1942 was redesignated Infantrie-Division (Mot) Grossdeutschland. Initially sent south to support 4th Panzer Army, it attacked eastwards towards Kursk reaching Voronezh on 6 July and then southwards, reaching the junction of the Rivers Don and Donetz by the end of the month. It was then moved into reserve near Smolensk but only a week later was sent north again to join Army Group Centre and fought a number of defensive actions around Rzhev (10 September 1942 &ndash 10 January 1943), including being encircled by several Soviet armoured units in the Lutschessa Valley during November and suffering heavy casualties. It was then in action around Kharkov (19 January &ndash 31 March 1943) and helped to retake the city. It was then pulled out of the line and placed in reserve near Poltava. The division was hastily rebuilt, receiving Staff, GD Panzer Regiment (formerly Staff, 203rd Panzer Regiment) and II / GD Panzer Regiment (formerly II / 203rd Panzer Regiment, 23rd Panzer Division). The motorcycle battalion was reorganised as a panzer reconnaissance unit, a fourth artillery battalion was added and the GD Panzer Battalion became I / GD Panzer Regiment. On 1 July 1943, a Tiger battalion joined the division as III / GD Panzer Regiment, a clear indication of its elite status as these tanks were usually formed into independent units held as corps or army assets. The Grossdeutschland Division had now become a panzer division in everything but name and at around 300 tanks, was stronger than many of the panzer divisions then stationed on the Eastern Front. Despite this, it was redesignated as Panzergrenadier-Division Grossdeutschland on 23 June 1943.
The division then participated in Operation Citadel and the subsequent Battle for Kursk (5-12 July) as part of the 4th Panzer Army. After that it fought in defence of Kharkov, Orel and Bryansk (18 July &ndash 5 August) and then took part in defensive fighting to the west of Kharkov (6 August &ndash 14 September) and the retreat behind the Dnieper (15-28 September). By the end of September, the division only had one operational tank left. It spent the rest of 1943 manning a section of the frontline near Kremenchug. The new year brought more engagements. It fought at Kirovograd (5-18 January 1944), on the Dnieper (29 January &ndash 6 March), Nikolayev and during the retreat to the River Bug (7-27 March). Meanwhile, the division was reinforced with a new panzer regiment (the 26th) equipped with new PzKw V Panther tanks. However, the unit was badly mauled in the fighting around Cherkassy in February and sent to Normandy to rebuild, where it was caught up in the invasion of Normandy (D-Day) and did not re-join the division until October. Fortunately, the division also received enough replacement equipment to re-fit the division's organic tank regiment, which by then consisted of I Battalion (five companies of Panthers), II Battalion (five companies of PzKw IVs) and III Battalion (four companies of Tigers). It also received the 1029th GD Grenadier Regiment (Reinforced) formed from the division's reserves, which included two battalions of motorised infantry, an artillery battalion and two antitank companies.
Spring 1944 saw Grossdeutschland having retreated out of the USSR into Romania. It saw action in northern Bessarabia and the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains (27 March &ndash 25 April), the upper Moldau River (26 April &ndash 31 May) and near Jassy (2-6 June). It was during a lull in the fighting in May, that the GD Fusilier Regiment was returned to Germany and entirely re-equipped with half-tracks. However, both it and the GD Panzer Grenadier Regiment had suffered so many casualties, that the IV Battalion in both regiments had to be disbanded. The GD Fusilier Regiment managed to return to the division just in time to take part in the fighting near Jassy, but it suffered so many casualties that its I Battalion had to be disbanded temporarily, although the 1029th GD Panzer Grenadier Regiment was disbanded soon after, and its survivors used to reconstitute I / GD Fusilier Regiment. On a more positive note, the GD Panzer Engineer Battalion was expanded to almost regimental strength.
Late summer saw the division sent to East Prussia. Army Group North had been trapped in the Baltic States and Grossdeutschland was among the forces tasked with opening a corridor, which was accomplished by 25 August. There was then a lull in the fighting in that sector for over a month but Hitler did not take advantage of the opportunity to extricate the 16th and 18th Armies from Courland. On 5 October, the Red Army again attacked and sealed off Army Group North. The division was pushed back into the Memel pocket and evacuated by the Kriegsmarine back to East Prussia in late 1944. In November, Panzer-Korps Grossdeutschland was created, consisting of Panzergrenadier-Division Grossdeutschland and Panzer-Grenadier Division Brandenburg. In line with this, December saw Grossdeutschland undergo its final major reorganisation. Its panzer and panzer grenadier regiments were reduced to two battalions each, the artillery regiment was reduced to three battalions and the assault gun battalion was transferred to the Brandenburg Division as II / Brandenburg Panzer Regiment. The III / GD Panzer Regiment became the GD Heavy Panzer Battalion and became part of the corps troops, which is what happened to the other battalions the division lost (except for the assault gun battalion).
In January 1945, the GD division was in the Willenberg area of East Prussia. Back in action on the 15 January against two Soviet Fronts who were approaching Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, which belongs to Russia), it fought a long defensive battle before conducting a counterattack in early March that re-established a communication route between the city and Ermland. However, Red Army pressure was just too strong and the GD division was forced to retreat through Ermland, over the Frisches Haff into Samland. From there it retreated through Samland, fought in the Battle of Pillau and the defence of the Frisches Nehrung (12-30 April) &ndash it was still fighting when Hitler committed suicide. The exhausted remnants, some 4,000 personnel, were evacuated by the Kriegsmarine to Schleswig-Holstein where they surrendered to British forces.
1934 &ndash October 1935 Eric von Keiser
Oct 1935 &ndash Oct 1936 Werner Freiherr von and zu Gildsa
Oct 1936 &ndash June 1939 Oberst Hans von Alten
June 1939 &ndash Aug 1941 Oberstleutnant (then Oberst) Wilhelm-Humold von Stockhausen
Aug 1941 &ndash April 1943 Oberst (then Generalmajor, then Generalleutnant) Walter Hörnlein
April &ndash June 1943 General der Panzertruppen Hermann Balck
June 1943 &ndash Jan 1944 Generalleutnant Walter Hörnlein
Feb 1944 &ndash Sept 1944 Generalleutnant Hasso von Manteuffel
Sept 1944 &ndash Feb 1945 Generalmajor Karl Lorenz
February &ndash May 1945 Generalmajor Hellmuth Mäder
1st Grossdeutschland Infantry Regiment (three battalions from the original GD Regiment)
2nd Grossdeutschland Infantry (later Fusilier) Regiment (three battalions)
Grossdeutschland Panzer Battalion (formerly I / 100th Panzer Regiment)
Grossdeutschland Motorcycle Battalion
Grossdeutschland Tank Destroyer Battalion (formerly 643rd Tank Destroyer Battalion)
Grossdeutschland Panzer Artillery Regiment (three battalions)
Grossdeutschland Army Flak Artillery Battalion (formerly 285th Army Flak Artillery Battalion)
Grossdeutschland Assault Gun Battalion (formerly 192nd Assault Gun Battalion)
Grossdeutschland Panzer Engineer Battalion (formerly 43rd Engineer Battalion)
Grossdeutschland Panzer Signal Battalion (formerly 309th Signal Battalion)
Special Insignia and Uniforms
Grossdeutschland utilised all the standard uniforms and equipment found in the rest of the German Army. One item of insignia unique to Grossdeutschland was the use of a cuffband, first authorised in June 1939 and positioned on the lower right sleeve, fifteen centimetres from the edge of the cuff. It was 32mm wide and had the legend Grossdeutschland machine-woven in metallic aluminium thread and Gothic-script characters, on a dark green rayon backing with woven aluminium edge stripes. In the summer of 1940, a new version was produced which had Inf. Regt. Grossdeutschland as an inscription but by far the most widely seen is a third variant, introduced in late 1939, again with the single word Grossdeutschland as an inscription. This inscription was hand-woven in aluminium bullion thread in the old German Sütterlin script on a black (rather than dark green) band with edging in aluminium 'Russia' braid. In mid-1944, attempts were made to standardise the manufacture of cuffbands in the interests of economy and so the cuffbands after this time are machine-embroidered in silver-grey yarn on a black wool cloth band with edging in silver-grey 'Russia' braid. In November, the length of the cuffband was limited to twenty-five centimetres, so it did not reach all the way round the sleeve. In addition, a special shoulder strap cipher were used, initially being a 'W' when the unit was known as the Wach-Regiment Berlin, but later being changed to 'GD' when it became Grossdeutschland. The unit motif placed on vehicles was a white, left-facing Stahlhelm (helmet).
In terms of miniature figure wargaming, there are a number of scales available, depending on what the player&rsquos requirements are. These range from 1/285 or 1/300 scale micro armour (where each tank is only 10-15mm long) to individual figures up to around 32mm or higher, with three of the more popular scales being 15mm, 20mm and 28mm. Many wargames rules will cater for different scales. With regard to the 28mm scale (the author&rsquos preferred choice), several wargames figure manufacturers, including Black Tree Design, Artizan Design, Crusader Miniatures and Warlord Games, produce extensive ranges of 28mm figures in both metal and plastic covering the German Army during the Second World War, while some (Warlord Games and Rubicon Models for example) do equipment and vehicles. These are available as individual figures, vehicles or pieces of equipment (such as an anti-tank gun or artillery piece) but also in larger units. This includes sets that can form the basis of a particular unit for example, Warlord Games produces the 'German Pioneers' or the 'Blitzkrieg German Infantry' sets which contain around thirty figures as part of their Bolt Action range. They also have many of the major items of equipment that Grossdeutschland utilised, as do Rubicon:
- PzKw III, IV, V and VI tanks
- StuG III, Marder II and III, Hummel and Wespe self-propelled guns
- Hetzer tank destroyer
- SdKfz 7, 250 and 251 halftracks
- PaK 36, 38 and 40 anti-tank guns.
Bellis, M. (1988) German Tanks and Formations 1939-45, Crewe: Self-Published.
Lucas, J. (1979) Germany's Elite Panzer Force: Grossdeutschland, Tonbridge: BCA (by arrangement with Macdonald and Jane's Publishers).
Marcus. (2018) Axis History website, located at https://www.axishistory.com, as of 6 September 2018.
Metapedia. (2015) Wach-Regiment Berlin (Reichswehr) webpage, last modified 14 August 2015, located at https://de.metapedia.org/wiki/Wach-Regiment_Berlin_(Reichswehr), as of 11 September 2018.
Mitcham, S. (2001) The Panzer Legions: A Guide to the German Army Tank Divisions of World War II and Their Commanders, London: Greenwood Press.
Nafziger, G. (2011) Organizational History of the German Armoured Formations 1939-1945, Combined Arms Research Library (Digital Library), archived from the original 8 December 2011, located at https://web.archive.org/web/20111208094147/http://www.cgsc.edu/CARL/nafziger/939GXPZ.PDF, as of 17 July 2018.
Quarrie, B. (1977) Panzer-Grenadier Division 'Grossdeutschland', London: Osprey Publishing, Vanguard Series No. 2.
Spaeter, H. (1990) Panzerkorps Grossdeutschland &ndash A Pictoral History, West Chester, PA: Schiffer Publishing.
Williamson, G. (2002) German Army Elite Units 1939-45, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, Men-at-Arms Series No. 380.
Satellite units of Grossdeutschland included:
Wach-Kompanie Berlin (was eventually expanded to regiment status and helped form the 309th Infantry Division in early 1945)
Fuhrer-Grenadier Brigade (formed in July 1944, it was expanded to divisional status in early 1945)
Fuhrer-Begleit Brigade (formed in November 1944, was expanded to divisional status in early 1945)
Guard III YP-2384 - History
A truly dramatic moment in history occurred on April 20, 1814, as Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France and would-be ruler of Europe said goodbye to the Old Guard after his failed invasion of Russia and defeat by the Allies.
By that time, Napoleon had ruled France and surrounding countries for twenty years. Originally an officer in the French Army, he had risen to become Emperor amid the political chaos following the French Revolution in which the old ruling order of French kings and nobility had been destroyed.
Napoleon built a 500,000 strong Grand Army which used modern tactics and improvisation in battle to sweep across Europe and acquire an Empire for France.
But in 1812, the seemingly invincible Napoleon made the fateful decision to invade Russia. He advanced deep into that vast country, eventually reaching Moscow in September. He found Moscow had been burned by the Russians and could not support the hungry French Army over the long winter. Thus Napoleon was forced to begin a long retreat, and saw his army decimated to a mere 20,000 men by the severe Russian winter and chaos in the ranks.
Britain, Austria, and Prussia then formed an alliance with Russia against Napoleon. Although Napoleon rebuilt his armies and won several minor victories over the Allies, he was soundly defeated in a three-day battle at Leipzig. On March 30, 1814, Paris was captured by the Allies. Napoleon then lost the support of most of his generals and was forced to abdicate on April 6, 1814.
In the courtyard at Fontainebleau, Napoleon then bid farewell to the remaining faithful officers of the Old Guard.
Soldiers of my Old Guard: I bid you farewell. For twenty years I have constantly accompanied you on the road to honor and glory. In these latter times, as in the days of our prosperity, you have invariably been models of courage and fidelity. With men such as you our cause could not be lost but the war would have been interminable it would have been civil war, and that would have entailed deeper misfortunes on France.
I have sacrificed all of my interests to those of the country.
I go, but you, my friends, will continue to serve France. Her happiness was my only thought. It will still be the object of my wishes. Do not regret my fate if I have consented to survive, it is to serve your glory. I intend to write the history of the great achievements we have performed together. Adieu, my friends. Would I could press you all to my heart.
Napoleon Bonaparte - April 20, 1814
Post-note: Following this, Napoleon was sent into exile on the little island of Elba off the coast of Italy. But ten months later, in March of 1815, he escaped back into France. Accompanied by a thousand men from his Old Guard he marched toward Paris and gathered an army of supporters along the way.
Once again, Napoleon assumed the position of Emperor, but it lasted only a 100 days until the battle of Waterloo, June 18, 1815, where he was finally defeated by the combined English and Prussian armies.
A month later he was sent into exile on the island of St. Helena off the coast of Africa. On May 5, 1821, the former vain-glorious Emperor died alone on the tiny island abandoned by everyone. In 1840 his body was taken back to France and buried in Paris.
Steam Guard is an additional level of security that can be applied to your Steam account. The first level of security on your account is your login credentials: your Steam account name and password. With Steam Guard, a second level of security is applied to your account, making it harder for your Steam account to fall into the wrong hands.
When Steam Guard is enabled on your account, when you login to your Steam account from an unrecognized device you'll need to provide a special access code to verify it's your account. Depending on your Steam Guard settings, you'll either receive an email with the special code or you'll get it from the Steam Mobile app on your smartphone.
How do I enable Steam Guard via email?
Steam Guard is enabled by default on your Steam account if your email is verified and you have restarted Steam twice since verifying your email. If you have disabled Steam Guard, and wish to reactivate it, please follow the instructions below:
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I'm not receiving a Steam Guard email&hellip
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Why am I being asked to authenticate a "new device" every time I log in on the same device?
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What if I can't log in once Steam Guard is enabled?
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Will Steam Guard prohibit me from logging into 3rd party sites that sign in through Steam?
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How do Steam Guarded accounts get stolen?
Steam Guard protects your Steam account by requiring access to your verified email account. This second layer of security depends on your email account also being secure. Below are the common methods used to steal accounts with Steam Guard enabled:
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Why does Steam report 'Steam Guard not enabled' while the Steam Guard button is missing?
This can happen after Steam Support has restored your account. If the button to enable or change Steam Guard's settings is missing you must restart Steam.
Non-operative treatment, rehabilitation, and return-to-sports (RTS)
Within the past 10 years (2010s), studies have consistently supported non-operative treatment for isolated grade I, grade II, and nondisplaced tibial avulsion PCL injuries [52, 63, 65, 71, 72]. There continues to be a debate regarding the management of isolated grade III injuries as there is limited data on the outcomes following non-operative treatment. A prospective cohort study in high-level athletes with grade II (n = 25) and grade III (n = 21) isolated acute PCL injuries showed that approximately 83% of athletes were able to participate at a competitive sports level (mean Tegner Activity Scale, 9) after non-operative treatment at an average follow-up period of 5 years . In addition, an epidemiological study demonstrated a median lay-off time of 31 days after PCL injury for professional male soccer players. However, these prospectively collected data in men’s professional soccer included all grades of PCL injuries as well as operatively and non-operatively treated athletes . Accordingly, initial non-operative management based on functional bracing and rehabilitation with optional delayed PCL-R seems to be reasonable for isolated acute PCL injuries, even for high-level athletes with grade III PCL injuries . Although the PCL has a strong intrinsic healing capability, residual posterior laxity is a serious and frequently observed disadvantage of non-operative management [52, 71, 72]. However, the subjective and objective outcomes after non-operative treatment are promising [3, 26, 30, 63, 71, 72]. One prospective study demonstrated increased knee laxity based on manual testing in 9% of patients following non-operative treatment after a mean follow-up of 14 years. Additionally, instrumented laxity testing (KT-1000) revealed a mean side-to-side difference of 3 mm . Nevertheless, the majority of patients were able to regain functional range-of-motion (ROM) and sufficient quadriceps strength to return to activities of daily living, with 45% participating in jumping and pivoting activities . Furthermore, no correlation between functional outcomes and grade of laxity could be observed . While non-operative management remains an integral part of the management of isolated PCL injures, it is important to acknowledge that unsatisfactory outcomes may occur. One study showed that patients undergoing non-operative treatment of isolated PCL injuries occasionally experienced pain and swelling in 81% and 56% of patients, respectively . Additionally, a considerable number of PCL deficient patients developed subsequent meniscal injuries requiring subsequent surgery as well as a deterioration of the articular cartilage on average 13 years after the injury, indicating residual knee laxity . This is also supported by the development of moderate to severe OA in approximately 11% of patients at long-term follow-up . There is a paucity of studies comparing operative and non-operative treatment in PCL deficient patients. However, it has been shown that non-operative treatment leads to significantly more subsequent meniscal injuries as well as a higher rate of OA and a higher conversion rate to total knee arthroplasty compared to operative treatment .
Rehabilitation protocols whether for non-operative treatment or postoperative care, are inconsistently reported in the literature . Agreement exists in the combination of temporary immobilization/bracing and exercise therapy. Accordingly, appropriate stabilization by initial static and later functional bracing accompanied by progressive exercise therapy is important, whether post-injury or postoperatively, to support the healing process of the PCL [3, 26, 30]. A dynamic anterior drawer brace facilitates end-to-end contact between the torn PCL fibers by applying an anteriorly directed force along the proximal tibia . Studies demonstrated a reduction of PTT based on instrumented laxity measurement following non-operative treatment using static and dynamic braces with posterior tibial support [26, 30]. Initially, partial weight-bearing is recommended and ROM exercises are performed in the prone position to minimize hamstring activity and to counteract the gravity-induced posterior tibial sag [2, 35, 65]. The following weeks are accompanied by advancement to full weight-bearing with strong emphasis on quadriceps strengthening. Jogging and sport-specific exercises are often initiated in the sixth postoperative month. Full ROM, quadriceps strength, and a firm endpoint in the posterior drawer test are required before return to cutting and pivoting sports [35, 65]. This can take up to 12 months, however, quicker recovery with return to sports at 16 weeks has been reported in high-level athletes .
Following PCL-R, weight-bearing as tolerated with a knee brace providing posterior tibial support and locked in full extension is recommended for the first 3–6 weeks, followed by functional bracing for up to 6 months, to promote healing and prevent a fixed posterior tibial subluxation [19, 35, 65]. The authors’ recommendation for non-operative treatment and postoperative rehabilitation is illustrated in Fig. 3.
Non-operative and postoperative treatment protocol for posterior cruciate ligament injuries. PCL posterior cruciate ligament, PT physical therapy, PTS posterior tibial support, ROM (ex/flex) range of motion (extension to flexion), w week