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I am not a history major but I am very interested in Pyramids and their origin.
Is there any theory that says Mesoamerican and Giza's pyramids were build before continental drift ?? If so, can you briefly write about them?
Apologies if the question doesn't meet the requirement of this forum. All I want to know if anybody ever proposed/rejected pseudo scientific theories like this. If so have such theories and their disprove ever been published in academic journals?
No. That is impossible. Continental drift is a geological phenomena millions, if not billions of years, in progress.
You probably wonder why those constructions look fairly similar. Mesoamericans and Egyptians both discovered independent of each other that stacking stones that way is very durable.
Mesoamerican pyramids form a prominent part of ancient Mesoamerican architecture. Although similar in some ways to Egyptian pyramids, these New World structures have flat tops (many with temples on the top) and stairs ascending their faces.   The largest pyramid in the world by volume is the Great Pyramid of Cholula, in the east-central Mexican state of Puebla. The builders of certain classic Mesoamerican pyramids have decorated them copiously with stories about the Hero Twins, the feathered serpent Quetzalcoatl, Mesoamerican creation myths, ritualistic sacrifice, etc. written in the form of hieroglyphs on the rises of the steps of the pyramids, on the walls, and on the sculptures contained within. 
Evidence of Seven Levels Beneath the Giza Plateau
Five miles from Cairo stands one of the most ancient and alluring sites in human history. This mystery comprises the three main pyramids of Giza that have come to represent one of the most famous ancient civilizations. The megalithic stones that form these structures lie on a great plateau, and now investigators have found something else fascinating that lies below the pyramids.
Gregg Braden explains that some of the earliest credible accounts of the Giza Plateau come from the Greek historian and geographer Herodotus, who, in the early 400s B.C.E, compiled a reference book on ancient civilizations, cultures, and technologies predating his time by thousands of years.
Prior to Herodotus, no one had presented a systematic, thorough study of the past, attempting to link events with how they shaped history. Herodotus speculated there were hidden passages beneath the pyramids, as well as chambers, pathways, and great spaces — all of which were created when the climate and topography of Egypt were very different than it is today. Herodotus felt that beneath the pyramids lay the remnants of other ancient civilizations.
If Herodotus was correct, the pyramids may be sitting upon the most amazing time capsule in history, revealing not only long-lost cultures but also their technologies and origins saved in the earliest of writings and images.
Two researchers stand out in the search to uncover the underground spaces beneath the pyramids: British Consul General Henry Salt and his hired explorer Giovanni Battista Belzoni. These men were able to survey the area with the limited technology of their time in the early 1800s and were led by the desert topography to an area at the edge of the Giza Plateau, now an archaeological find of its own called The Tomb of the Birds.
Andrew Collins, the author of Beneath the Pyramids , suggests The Tomb of the Birds was a tribute to a keeper of hidden records and perhaps this site, a stone’s throw from the pyramids, is one of the entryways into the subterranean world beneath Giza.
Modern science backs up Collins’ claim thanks to satellite images, revealing an underground passageway from The Tomb of the Birds to the second pyramid. This finding had nearly been lost to history but was rediscovered in 2008 when Collins read Salt’s 1817 diary journal. This is where the story just begins to get interesting, and in the episode titled “ Seven Levels Below Giza ” from season three of Ancient Civilizations, we learn why.
Giza has long been referred to as Rostau , meaning the “mouth of the passages,” and may be the key to this trove of lost knowledge. And with the help of British Egyptologist Nigel Skinner-Simpson, Andrew Collins brings new light to Henry Salt’s exploration on the plateau.
According to researcher Anton Parks’ translations of ancient Sumerian tablets, there were seven levels of caves beneath the Giza plateau. This underground system was inhabited by ancient Egyptian gods known as the Clan of Osiris. Parks’ research found that prior to these extraterrestrial “gods” another species of lion-headed extraterrestrials, known as the Urma, came to Earth and inhabited this underground infrastructure. This is why we see remnants of their species in the Sphinx and in the Egyptian goddess Sekhmet.
Parks says these seven levels were massive and initially carved by the Mediterranean, which engulfed Egypt thousands of years ago. The first level was inhabited by prisoners and people of the Egyptian court. The second level was where an underground tributary of the Nile ran through and was where gardens were kept. On the third level lived hybrids and their gods, as well as the humans dedicated to hybrid offspring. The fourth level housed the Egyptian god royalty. And the final levels housed the technology that created the artificial atmospheres and power generators to supply energy for the entire infrastructure.
Could this massive underground system still exist?
As with all such mysteries, only time will tell the truth and reveal what has been suspected by so many for so long regarding Giza’s underground system of caves, chambers, and perhaps even hidden treasures. And it seems that given today’s technology we may be able to peer into lost worlds far below the surface of the pyramids.
The pyramid’s original significance is unclear, but McCafferty believes its creators intended it to be an “axis mundi” — a cosmic nexus of the underworld, the Earth and the heavens. Sitting above a spring, it may have represented the Mesoamerican concept of the "altepetl" (literally translating to “water-mountain") or a metaphor for “kingdom.” Murals scattered throughout the interior depict visuals like serpents, jaguars, skulls and festivals, but without historical documents it’s difficult to glean much about their meaning.
In later years, McCafferty says, it served as a cemetery and a shrine to the rain god Chiconauquiahuitl. But John Pohl, an anthropologist at California State University, Los Angeles, suggests a different interpretation. Unlike the pyramid’s first three phases, the final one lacks a stone facade, leading him to conclude that the Olmeca-Xicalanca covered it with adobe to create an artificial mountain dedicated to the deities Xochiquetzal and Xochipilli . “It seems to have been venerated as a natural, park-like environment,” Pohl says. (It’s also possible, McCafferty notes, that the stone facade was simply stripped away for use elsewhere.)
Either way, around 1200 A.D., yet another ethnic group arrived. The Tolteca-Chichimeca shifted the city’s religious center to a new pyramid, which they dedicated to Quetzalcoatl, the name for both a feathered-serpent deity and a mythological culture hero. When Cortés showed up, Cholula primarily served as a site of worship for the cult of Quetzalcoatl, and the great pyramid had been mostly abandoned.
But then, in one of the story’s most remarkable twists, the Spanish unwittingly began a new chapter in the pyramid’s life: They built a Catholic church on its summit. Five hundred years later, La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de Los Remedios still stands, capping a legacy of two-and-a-half millennia. “This is the only place we know of in Mesoamerica where this kind of permanent engagement with a particular place continues,” Pohl says, “even to the point where it’s considered one of the most holy places in the Catholic faith.”
In fact, McCafferty argues there is no great distinction between the pyramid’s use by pre-Columbian peoples, and its modern use — the Virgin of the Remedies, to whom the church is dedicated, shares attributes with more than one Mesoamerican goddess. “It’s a continuity, an evolution into a new variant,” he says. Perhaps in a few centuries, a new layer will overtake the church, preserving another moment in the great pyramid’s rich history.
Fascinating similarities between the Pyramids of Giza and Bosnian Pyramids
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On one hand, the Great Pyramid of Giza and its surrounding structures are considered by many as some of the most incredible ancient structures ever erected by ‘man’. On the other hand, the Pyramids of Bosnia are one of the most controversial discoveries in the last decade, yet strangely, they seem to share some fascinating characteristics.
The pyramids of the Giza plateau in Egypt are without a doubt, the most famous and most recognized pyramids on the surface of the planet. The incredible ancient structures attract millions of tourists from around the world each year. Their mesmerizing size proves that ancient civilizations were extremely sophisticated in the distant past, possessing highly advanced technology and knowledge, which ultimately allowed them to achieve incredible things, at a time in history when mainstream scholars tell us, societies on Earth were primitive.
While the Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the most recognized pyramids on Earth, there are other similar structures that have been discovered in recent years. One of them is the Great Pyramid of Bosnia, aka the Great Pyramid of the Sun located in Visoko, modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Ever since the Bosnian Pyramids were discovered by Bosnian archeologist Dr. Semir Osmanagic, the archeological community refused to accept the finding suggesting that the Bosnian Pyramids are an elaborate hoax. However, numerous findings made in Visoko and surrounding areas indicate a very different truth, one that seems to point towards the existence of highly advanced, ancient civilizations that inhabited the area in the distant past.
Interestingly, there are many similarities that the Great Pyramid of Egypt and Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun share. Moreover, while many remain unconfident about the existence of Pyramids in the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids in Visoko, the following indications tell a very different story.
Just like the Pyramids located on the Giza plateau in Egypt, the Pyramids of Bosnia have an incredible accurate geographical placement since the largest Pyramid of Bosnia has an orientation to the North accurate with an error of 0 degrees, 0 minutes and 12 seconds. Interestingly, Aligned True North: The Great Pyramid is the most accurately aligned structure in existence and faces true north with only 3/60th of a degree of error. The position of the North Pole moves over time, and the pyramid was precisely aligned at one time.
Interestingly, experts from all over the world have concluded that based on studies, there are ultrasound, infrasound, infrared and electromagnetic fields of unknown origin at the top of the pyramids of the Sun and Moon in Bosnia. A similar characteristic is believed to be present at the Great Pyramid of Giza, which according to many, was not intended to serve as a tomb, but as a highly advanced monument with the ability to harness the Earth’s natural energy. The Project called ScanPyramids is on the right path to uncover the secrets behind the great pyramid of Giza which according to many is a structure created to harness the natural energy of the planet, just as the Pyramid of the Sun in Bosnia.
Moreover, according to testing, the origin of the “energy beam” leaving the Pyramid of the Sun is located below the Bosnian pyramid, at a depth of 2440 meters. The study also demonstrated that a metal plate located at a great depth and high concentrations of negative ions are generating electricity over 10 kilowatts. Croatian scientists also detected a light beam with a radius of 4.5 meters in 2010, emerging from the top of the Pyramid of the Sun. A phenomenon that has been recorded half way across the globe in the Yucatán Peninsula, at the Pyramid of “El Castillo”.
Many researchers firmly believe that Pyramids are in fact capable of harnessing the natural energy from our planet. Interestingly, according to a study from architect Miguel Perez Sanchez a series of impossible figures with the number pi, e, and continuous references and relationships with the star Sirius give a new perspective on the great encyclopedia of knowledge that is the Great Pyramid of Egypt. According to Sanchez, in the distant past, a huge electromagnetic sphere was located at the top of the Great Pyramid of Giza. The question is what was the purpose of this mysterious device? Is it possible that, like many researchers suggest, the Great Pyramid of Giza was used as some sort of giant power generator across ancient Egypt?
As proposed by Pérez-Sánchez, the sphere that the ancient Egyptians placed at the top of the pyramid symbolized the Eye of Horus and had a diameter of 2,718 royal cubits (2.7 meters), which is the accurate measure of the number e. The sphere located on the Pyramid was placed as a worship to the Sun and Sirius, the brightest star in the sky, which was associated with Isis.
Is it possible that the Great Pyramid of Giza was in fact built in order to take advantage of ‘invisible’ energies? Interestingly, at the Bosnian Pyramid of the sun, researchers have discovered an energy beam (electromagnetic in nature) coming through the top of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun. The radius of the beam is 4.5 meters with a frequency of 28 kHz with a strength of 3,9 V. According to researchers the beam is continuous and its strength grows as it moves up and away from the pyramid. This phenomenon contradicts the known laws of nature, physics and technology and might as well be the first ever “tangible” proof of non-herzian technology found on Earth.
The “ultrasound” beam found at the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun comes in regular blocks of 9,3333 Hz with peaks up to 28.3000kHz
The similarities between the Pyramids of Visoko in Bosnia and the Pyramids at the Giza plateau are many, yet these structures face an identical question that so far have not been answered.
Aztec Pyramid Purpose, Religion and Worship
Aztec temples located at the top of Aztec pyramids were called “Teocalli” which means “God houses”. Aztec priests managed these temples which were used for worship, prayers, and various offering to the gods, including human sacrifice. The main religious building of the capital of Aztec Empire, Tenochtitlan, was Templo Mayor. It had two shrines at the top which were dedicated to the gods Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc. Various rituals were performed in these temples including blood-letting, music worship, and burning of tree resin. However, the supreme offering was the human sacrifice for which war captives were used. Aztec’s had a month of twenty days which amounted to 18 months per year. At the end of every month, religious festivities were held and humans were sacrificed on the pyramid temples.
The Great Pyramid of Cholula Falls into Disarray
Around 600 AD, Cholula was conquered by the Olmec-Xicallancas, who also made additions to the city’s pyramid. However, around 1100 AD, the city fell into the hands of the Toltec-Chichimecas. It is said that when the Toltec-Chichimecas occupied Cholula, the Great Pyramid was already largely submerged under the earth, and vegetation and trees were growing all over it.
Ruins of an altar at the Great Pyramid of Cholula. When excavated it was found to contain two deformed skulls of decapitated children when it was excavated. ( Justin Ames )
Rather than reclaiming this ancient temple, the Toltec-Chichimecas decided to leave it as it was and focused on building new temples instead. Under the rule of the Toltec-Chichimecas, the city of Cholula flourished, and was even able to maintain its independence for some time in the face of the expanding Aztec Empire.
An excavated section of the Great Pyramid of Cholula, Puebla, Mexico. (Diego Delso/ CC BY SA 3.0 )
Nevertheless, Cholula was eventually conquered by the Aztecs, and then fell to the Spanish. In 1519, the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés arrived in Cholula, the second largest city in Mexico at that point of time.
Like the Toltec-Chichimecas before them, the Aztecs did not restore the Great Pyramid of Cholula. As a result, when the Spanish arrived, they did not know that this was a man-made structure, but believed that it was just a natural hill.
In 1594, a church called the Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de los Remedios (Church of Our Lady of Remedies) was built by the Spanish colonialists. This church is also known as the Santuario de la Virgen de los Remedios (Sanctuary of the Virgin of Remedies), and is still visible by those visiting the Great Pyramid of Cholula.
From a distance the Great Pyramid of Cholula looks like a natural hill topped by a church. ( CC BY SA 2.0 )
Ulama – A Modern Take on the Ancient Game
But today, people in Mexico still play a variant of the game that their ancestors once did. Called Ulama, it is a game played in a few communities in the Mexican state of Sinaloa. Ulama de Brazo is played in northern Sinaloa. Two teams of three face each other, and instead of their hips, players hit the ball with their forearms, which are protected by padding.
Ulama de Cadera is found in the south of Sinaloa. In this version of the ball game, teams tend to be made of five or more and in this case, the traditional hip is used to move the ball.
Another version of the game, Ulama de Palo, is different in that the players wield a wooden racket. This particular game was a relic of the past until it was revived in the 1980s.
Top Image: Representation of the ancient Mesoamerican ball game being played on the Great Ballcourt at Chichen Itza . Source: pop_gino /Adobe Stock
The Great Pyramid In Tenochtitlan
The capital of the Aztec empire was Tenochtitlan, an overwhelming city, where the most impressive and monumental Aztec architecture, The Great Pyramid rose majestically, 60m above the city. The pyramid was a colossal structure, possessing a natural sense of order and geometrical symmetry. It consisted of four step-like platforms built on top of each other, and they related to the four cardinal directions. Atop it was the main temple of Tenochtitlan, which was dedicated to Huitzilopochtli, the god of war and sun, and Tlaloc, the god of rain and fertility.
Ready to learn 7 facts you may not know about the ancient Egyptian pyramids?They weren’t all pointed.Most pyramids were built west of the Nile.We’re still figuring out how they were built.The Egyptians used astronomy to guide construction.They weren’t built by slaves.The Great Pyramid can tell time.
SCIENTISTS have made an incredible discovery about the 4000-year-old Great Pyramid of Giza which could help boost renewable energy in the current day. Scientists from Russia have discovered that Egypt’s largest pyramid can trap electric and magnetic energy into its chambers to spark higher levels of energy.
ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS : Egyptian Pyramids and Aztec Pyramids
A look at Ancient Civilizations Egyptian Pyramids and Aztez Pyramids. During the 4th dynasty of the Pharaohs in Egypt, nearly 5000 years ago, a people emerged from the mists of pre-history to complete the most ambitious and spectacular undertaking ever attempted by mankind. An incredible feat characterized by ingenious design, resourceful technique, and above all, the labor of tens of thousands of men who contributed with their bare hands to creating these colossal tombs for their Pharaohs. We look at the construction of Khufu, which, tall as a 40 story building, is the largest pyramid in the Nile Valley.
Part 2 starts at 21:40 and looks at Ancient Aztec Pyramids. Aztec civilization reached its height in the early 16th century. Explore the capital of their empire, Tenochtitlán, home to elaborate yet sacred temples atop gigantic stepped pyramids. Witness the majesty of this warrior culture that has been unearthed below what is modern-day Mexico City by the preeminent archeologists of our time.
Ancient Civilizations offers a comparative analysis of the field, including both old world and new civilizations, and explores the connections between all civilizations around the earth.The volume provides a jargon-free introduction to ancient civilizations from the first civilizations, and the great powers in the Near East, to the first Aegean civilizations, the Mediterranean world in the first millennium, Imperial Rome, northeast Africa, divine kings in southeast Asia, and empires in East Asia, as well as early states in the Americas and Andean civilization.For those interested in ancient civilizations.
Today’s civilizations owe an immense debt to the powerful empires and mighty cities of antiquity. Their inventions, techniques and concepts enabled the advancement of humankind and lay the foundation for life in the modern world.
Explore Ancient History, including videos, pictures, and articles on cultures such as Ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome and more.