Helmet of Sultan Qaitbay

Helmet of Sultan Qaitbay


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MamlukHelmet

The applied arts thrived under the Mamluk Sultanate, a dynasty that ruled Egypt and the Levant, from Cairo. This helmet is the oldest known example of a Mamluk helmet and one of the most refined samples of Mamluk metalwork of this period.

A gilt band runs encircles the helmet, with an inscription in Thuluth calligraphy against a background of arabesques.

. listing the name and title of Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qalawun, who reigned from 1293 until 1341.

The nose guard could slide down. Feathers were originally affixed on both sides and the top of the helmet.

Come see this object with your own eyes in our collection Art of the Islamic World.

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Where to find Citadel of Qaitbay in Egypt?

The citadel of Alexandria is situated at the last point in the Western section of Alexandria shore, a location which was quite significant for the builder of this wonderful Islamic monument as it guarded the city against the threats of the crusaders in the 15th century and afterward.

The Citadel of Qaitbay in Alexandria was constructed and built with the use of the ruins of the ancient lighthouse that was constructed in the 3rd century AD by Ptolemy II. The lighthouse was damaged during the earthquake that occurred in Egypt in 1303 during the reign of the Mamluk king Sultan Qalaun. This made us lose the lighthouse which was one of the 7 wonders.

The Citadel of Qaitbay is easy to reach and it is quite recommended for any tourists who travel to explore Egypt to visit the citadel during their tours in Alexandria. Many tour packages to Egypt today include a one or a half-day tour of Alexandria. Simply your travel should include Kornish Street, the main route in Alexandria, get the sea to his right-hand side, drive all the way without turning or changing directions until he finds the citadel at the end of the road, directly on the Mediterranean sea.


Sultan Mohammad Ali

Mohammad Ali is regarded as the father of modern Egypt. He founded the Khedivate of Egypt and Sudan in 1805, capitalizing on the disorder in Egypt that followed the French occupation (1798 to 1801), and his descendants ruled Egypt until the Free Officers&rsquo Revolution in 1952. Once in power, Khedive Ali operated independently from the Ottoman Sultan, even threatening to invade Istanbul at one point. Under his rule, Egypt underwent rapid and dramatic modernization and economic expansion.

Following the withdrawal of the French occupying army in 1801, Mohammed Ali was sent to Egypt at the head of an Ottoman army to re-occupy the province. He managed to gain the support of Egyptian religious establishment and the people, who demanded that he become Wali (protector) of Egypt in 1805 however, he was not satisfied with the authority to govern Egypt.

He wanted to build a kingdom for himself out of the declining Ottoman Empire and he took drastic steps to modernize and strengthen his territory using Europe as a model. His program of modernization was so successful that he eventually threatened the authority of the Ottoman Sultan, who he was supposed to serve.

How did Mohammad Ali contribute to Egypt's economic growth?

Ali nationalized all of Egypt&rsquos agricultural lands to fund his military and set about improving them with a massive program of canal building. With the profits from the nationalization of agriculture, Ali established an industrial base that primarily supported his military, producing weapons and ships for a modern army and navy. He also built up Egypt&rsquos textile industry to compete with Europe and trained a new generation of Egyptian factory managers, workers, and bureaucrats. He also greatly expanded Egypt&rsquos educational system in order to fill the ranks of his new bureaucracy.

While Muhammad Ali had a reputation for brutality and maintained highly centralized authority over Egypt and the other lands that he conquered, the result of all of these reforms was an increase in social mobility, the growth of Egypt&rsquos economy, and the emergence of Egypt as a modern nation, even if he never gained the full legal independence from the Ottoman Empire that he desired.

How was Egypt under the rule of Mohammad Ali?

Under Khedive Muhammad Ali Egypt&rsquos agricultural lands were expanded and nationalized, becoming state tax farms to generate revenue for reforms. Ali used this income to establish an industrial base producing equipment for a modern army and navy and textiles. He instituted a draft for the military and labor in state factories.

He also sent expeditions to Europe to learn languages and bring back new technologies and organizational strategies. The educational system was expanded to produce bureaucrats and managers to fill the positions in this new economy and government. The result was revolutionary in Egypt, quickly growing the economy and dramatically increasing social mobility in a society that had remained largely feudal up until that point.

Mohammad Ali and Modern Egypt:

Today, Mohammad Ali is still regarded as the Father of Modern Egypt, even if his legacy is somewhat controversial given the great cost that average Egyptians paid for the changes he instituted. He remains very popular in the eyes of modern Egyptians. The most significant physical legacy of Mohammad Ali visible today is the Alabaster Mosque that towers over Cairo from the heights of the Citadel, completed as a memorial to the Khedives&rsquo deceased son in 1848.


Guard

Attached to the front of the helmet is a face guard. This should be rather lower than it currently is, so that the wearer of the helmet could look out over it. However, it has become fixed in a high position and the leather tabs that hold it in place are now too fragile for it to be adjusted.

Made of blued steel, and intricately decorated with gold, the guard is in the form of six conjoined bubris. Each point of the guard terminates in a tiger’s head, reflecting Tipu’s deep fascination with that animal, which led to the British nicknaming him ‘the Tiger of Mysore’.

The decoration incorporates verses from the Holy Qu’ran written in Nastaliq, a courtly Persian calligraphic style. The helmet is also said to have been dipped in the holy well of Zum Zum at Mecca in order to render its wearer invincible.​​​​

A Mysorean warrior wearing a similar face guard and helmet, 1792

The face guard of Tipu Sultan's war turban, c1799


Minbar

A minbar, or pulpit, stands to the right of the mihrab niche in major mosques. It is used for the sermons delivered during the midday prayer on Friday, the main service of the week.

Several woodworking techniques were used to decorate the structure, as here. Most striking are the panels assembled from hundreds of small, carefully shaped pieces of wood. Many, including this one, are set with carved ivory elements, which highlight the complex geometric designs.

The decoration often included carved inscriptions. Here they include the name of Sultan Qa'itbay, who ruled Egypt and Syria from 1468 to 1496. During this time, he earned a reputation for piety. He founded and restored many religious buildings and supplied them with minbars (mosque pulpits).

  • Jameel Gallery Minbar for Sultan Qa’itbay Egypt, probably Cairo 1468–96 A minbar, or pulpit, is used for the sermons delivered during the midday prayer on Friday, the main service of the week. Several woodworking techniques were used to decorate the structure. Most striking are the panels assembled from hundreds of small, carefully shaped pieces of wood. Carved ivory elements highlight the complex geometric designs. Sultan Qa’itbay, who ruled Egypt from 1468 to 1496, is named in several of the inscriptions. Cedar with inlay of ivory and wood, traces of paint and gilding Museum no. 1050-1869 (2010)
  • Jameel Gallery Minbar for Sultan Qa'itbay Egypt, probably Cairo 1468-96 A minbar, or pulpit, is placed to the right of the mihrab niche in major mosques. It is used for the sermons delivered during the midday prayer on Friday, the main service of the week. Several woodworking techniques were used to decorate the structure. Most striking are the panels assembled from hundreds of small, carefully shaped pieces of wood. Many are set with carved ivory elements, which highlight the complex geometric designs. The name of Sultan Qa'itbay, who ruled Egypt and Syria from 1468-96, appears in several of the inscriptions. Cedar with joined, carved, turned and fretted decoration, inlay of carved plaques of ivory, wood and ivory mosaic work, and traces of paint and gilding Museum no. 1050-1869(2006-2009)
  • MIMBAR (pulpit) Wood inlaid with ivory. Erected by the Sultan Qaitbay in his mosque in Cairo. EGYPTIAN (MAMLUK) end of the 15th century.(Used until 11/2003)

Purchased in Paris as part of "Dr Meymar's Collection", a group of historic objects sent to France by the Egyptian government, for display at the international exhibition of 1867. In 1869, following discussions at a parliamentary Select Committee in London, the South Kensington Museum (today the V&A) was authorised to buy this collection, with British government funds.

"Dr Meymar" was Husayn Fahmi (c.1827-1891), also called Husayn Pasha al-Mi`mar or al-Mi`mari (transliterated as "Meymar", meaning architect), a senior official in the Egyptian administration. He was (in 1864) the chief architect of the Majlis al-Tanzim wa'l-Urnatu, a committee in charge of public works in Cairo, and later (1882-5) a member of the Comite de conservation des monuments de l'Art arabe, which oversaw Cairo's historic heritage. Throughout his career, he was responsible for salvage and removal of historic architectural fittings, and for the construction of modern monuments and streets in the Egyptian capital.

Reporting on the 1867 Paris exhibition, Adalbert de Beaumont noted that "Dr Meymarie" had recovered decorative woodwork fragments from the mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, damaged during renovations to the mihrab area.

A minbar, or pulpit, stands to the right of the mihrab niche in major mosques. It is used for the sermons delivered during the midday prayer on Friday, the main service of the week.

Several woodworking techniques were used to decorate the structure, as here. Most striking are the panels assembled from hundreds of small, carefully shaped pieces of wood. Many, including this one, are set with carved ivory elements, which highlight the complex geometric designs.

The decoration often included carved inscriptions. Here they include the name of Sultan Qa'itbay, who ruled Egypt and Syria from 1468 to 1496. During this time, he earned a reputation for piety. He founded and restored many religious buildings and supplied them with minbars (mosque pulpits).


History

On promontory jutting out into the Mediterranean stands the Fort of Sultan Qaitbay. The current fort was built in the 1480s and added to by subsequent rulers, including Mohammad Ali.


view of the main tower of qaitbay

Inside the fort -- which was closed on the day we visited -- are several floors of Napoleonic and British relics and a naval museum. The fort is a huge castle, approached by a long causeway along the beach that ends up between the main towers, the original entrance to the fort. The modern entrance, to the east, is not as noticeable. There are granite and marble columns built into the facade of the walls, from other temples and buildings in Alexandria.


approaching the original entrance to the fort

While the fort is interesting, it is the site that is important -- Qaitbay sits on the foundations of the Pharos Lighthouse, one of the wonders of the ancient world. This enormous lighthouse -- 125 to 150 meters high -- was a marvel of architecture when it was built. Alexander the Great is rumored to have designed it, and the lighthouse itself was built during Ptolemy II's rule.


walking along the harbor to the fort

The first section, which was square, reputedly contained 300 rooms and hydraulic machinery to raise fuel to the second, octagonal story. The third story was round and housed the lantern -- the light of which was visible some 56km away. It is possible that there was a lens in the lighthouse a mirror is mentioned more than once in the documents describing it.


Construction History Of The Prophet’s Mosque

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Today it is the 2 nd largest mosque in the world, covering a sprawling area, but it hasn’t always been that way. It started as a humble open-air mosque that was adjacent to the living quarters of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.)

Over the past 1400 years the mosque has seen many expansion projects carried out by several rulers. The expansion projects continue to this very day here’s a brief construction history of the 2 nd holiest site in Islam.

The mosque was built Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) in 622 AD after his (P.B.U.H.)’s arrival in the city of Madinah. The land of the mosque was owned by Sahal and Suhayl. Part of it was used for drying dates and another part was a burial ground.

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) was offer the land as a gift, but he (P.B.U.H.) bought it from the owners and construction began. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) himself took part in the construction that lasted for around 7 months.

The size at this time measured 30.5 meters × 35.62 meters and it largely served as an open-air mosque. There were 3 entrances to the mosque, these were named Bab Al Rahma, Bab Al Jibril and Bab Al Nisa. Adjacent to the mosque were the Prophet (P.B.U.H.)’s living quarters.

Following the Battle of Khaybar in 628 AD, the mosque was further expanded and spanned a length of over 47 meters on each side.

It remained largely unaltered during the remaining part of the Prophet’s lifetime and during the reign of the first Caliph, Abu Bakr (R.A). However, during the reign of the second Caliph Umar (R.A.), the houses that were close to the mosque were abolished to pave way for further expansion. The houses of the Prophet’s wives meanwhile remained untouched.

It was during the reign of Caliph Uthman (R.A.) that the mosque underwent major changes. The mosque was demolished and the mosque was rebuilt in a rectangular shape facing Makkah. The walls were made of stone laid in mortar and the stone columns were joined by iron clamps.

Then in 707 AD, Caliph Al Walid from the Ummayad Caliphate undertook major renovation programs at the mosque. The mosque’s size was increased from 5094 sq. meters to 8672 sq. meters. Some of the major additions that this renovation effort saw were the construction of a wall that segregated the living quarters of the Prophet’s wives and the mosque shifted to a trapezoid layout, as opposed to the rectangular one it had earlier. An interesting thing about this period is that for the first time ever that minarets were installed in the mosque. They numbered four.

For more than 1000 years that followed Caliph Al Walid’s renovations the mosque hardly expanded in size. There were a few changes made but that didn’t alter the size of the mosque by much. Additions during this period included the construction of a wooden dome in 1279 AD over the tomb of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) during the reign of Mamluk Sultan Al Mansur Qalawun.

Major renovations took place under Sultan Qaitbay’s patronage, in 1481 after a large part of the mosque was brought down by lightening.

The dome was finally painted green in 1837 it carried various colors during its history including white and blue/purple.

The Ottomans that followed the Mamluks continued with minor changes here and there, until in 1849 when Sultan Abdul Majid I increased the size of the mosque by 1293 square meters, making it one of the biggest expansions to the mosque in centuries. Several smaller domes were installed in the prayer halls and the wall facing the Kaaba was adorned with calligraphy. A fifth minaret was installed and the floors of the prayer hall and courtyard were paved with red stone and marble.

Following the formation of Saudi Arabia, major modifications were done at the mosque. Demolitions were carried around the mosque to make way for the expansion of the prayer halls and courtyard. The newer areas carried concrete columns with pointed arches between them. The old columns were reinforced with concrete as well. Two minarets were replaced with two new ones. The new ones adhered to Mamluk architectural styles. A library was also built that housed many religious books.

In 1973 Saudi King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz ordered the construction of temporary shelters to the west of the mosque to accommodate the growing number of worshipers. Then in 1981, the old mosque was surrounded by new prayer areas on these sides, enlarging five times its size making this the biggest expansion ever in the mosque’s history.

Today the mosque enclosure is one hundred times bigger than the first mosque built by the Prophet and can accommodate more than half a million worshipers.

Last year, King Salman has approved a revised version of an expansion project for the Prophet’s Mosque that will see its size swell to accommodate the rising number of worshipers visiting the mosque.


Helmet of Sultan Qaitbay - History

– A spring is a water hole attached to a number of taps, which are built during the rule of Muslims over Jerusalem City and Al-Aqsa Mosque, especially during the Mamluk and Ayyubids eras.
– In Al-Aqsa Mosque, there are nearly 16 spings the most famous is: the AlKaas and Qaitbay springs.
– Some of them are exposed and can store rainwater. Some springs are used for drinking and ablution, and many of them were renovated by the Ottoman Empire and recently by the Reconstruction Committees.

Bab Al-Rahma Spring

Landmark Location
Western side of Bab Al-Rahma, in front of Al-Ahmadia schools&rsquo stair in the eastern side of Al-Aqsa mosque.

Relative to Dome of the rock: The southern western side of the dome of the rock ( Qubbat AL-Sakhra ).

Landmark History:
In september 1416 AH 1995 AD.

Reason of the name:
Relative to its location.

Builder Name:
Islamic Heritage Committee.

An Overview of the Landmark:
Reason of its name is because of its location, which is located in the western side of Bab Al-Rahma and Al-Tawba in front of Al-Ahmadia schools&rsquo stair in the eastern side of AL-Aqsa mosque, the southern western side of the dome of the rock ( Qubbat Al-Sakhra ), constructed by the Islamic Heritage Committee, in september 1416 AH 1995 AD

Bab Al-Asbat minaret spring

Landmark Location:
Eastern of Bab Al-asbat minaret, northern of Al-Aqsa mosque.

Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
Eastern of Bab Al-asbat minaret, northern of Al-Aqsa mosque.

Details of the shape:
4 faucets based on a mystical framework.

An Overview of the Landmark:
It is located in the eastern of Bab AL-Asbat minaret, northern of Al-Aqsa mosque, and northwest the holy rock, it has 4 faucets that is based on a mystical framework.

Bab Hatta spring

Landmark Location:
It is located in the left side of the leading stair to Bab Hatta lavatory. The northern of Al-Aqsa mosque.

Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
The northern of Qubbat Al-Sakhra ( dome of the rock ).

Landmark History:
The Ottoman era.

Reason of the name: Because of its presence in the eastern side of the wall of Bab Hatta.

Builder Name:
The Ottomans, It was restored by Al Aqsa Foundation for the Reconstruction of Holy Sites

Details of the shape:
A simple spring of making a tapered necklace covering the basin of the spring and above the arch is the decoration of the Persians, which characterize the Ottoman buildings.

Additional Information about the landmark:
-Ali Jarallah, the son of the Mufti of Jerusalem, stopped the spring in 1060 AH / 1650 AD, where there are many properties belonging to the family of Jarallah between the gates of Hatta and honor of the prophets.

-Was renovated by Al-Aqsa Foundation for the Reconstruction of Islamic Holy Sites during its construction of the nearby latrine unit and was later abolished.

An Overview of the Landmark:
Because of its presence in the eastern side of the wall of Bab Hatta it was called Bab Hatta spring. It is located in the left side of the leading stair to Bab Hatta lavatory.

- The northern of Al-Aqsa mosque. It was constructed in The Ottomans era, It was restored by Al Aqsa Foundation for the Reconstruction of Holy Sites.Was renovated by Al-Aqsa Foundation for the Reconstruction of Islamic Holy Sites during its construction of the nearby latrine unit and was later abolished.

- A simple spring of making a tapered necklace covering the basin of the spring and above the arch is the decoration of the Persians, which characterize the Ottoman buildings.
- Ali Jarallah, the son of the Mufti of Jerusalem, stopped the spring in 1060 AH / 1650 AD, where there are many properties belonging to the family of Jarallah between the gates of Hatta and honor of the prophets.

Sulieman Al-Qanouni spring

Landmark Location:
About 20 meters from Bab Faisal near the Dome of the Prophet's lovers&rdquoQubbat Oshaq Al-Nabi&rdquo , on the northern side of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
North West the Dome of the Rock.

Landmark History:
The Ottoman period.

Reason of the name:
Relative to Sulieman Al-Qanouni who ordered the construction of the spring.

Builder Name:
Sulieman Al-Qanouni.

Details of the shape:
-The facade of the spring and its decoration is similar to the door of the chain spring &ldquo Bab Al-Silsila &ldquo and other springs of Sultan Suleiman, where scattered in the ancient city and around it.

-In the center of the spring and above the basin is a plaque engraving the titles of Sultan Suleiman Al-Qanouni who ordered the construction of the spring. There is a small marble plate above the previous painting with two lines in the Ottoman language and in very small letters and the inscription is used to reconstruct this spring later.

Additional Information about the landmark:
-There is a terrace directly behind the spring, so that the rear facade of the avenue is a mihrab &rdquo niche&rdquo of this mausoleum and above the mihrab &ldquoniche &rdquo there is a renewal painting of it, by order of Sultan Suleiman Al-Qanouni.

-The spring was supplied through the canal that transported water from Sulieman&rsquos pond to Jerusalem. But, the spring is disabled now.

&ndashIn 1418 AH / 1997 AD. A place of ablution was built around the spring of Suleiman, consisting of 34 faucet with stone benches.

An Overview of the Landmark:
Relative to Sulieman Al-Qanouni who ordered the construction of the spring. About 20 meters from Bab Faisal near the Dome of the Prophet&rsquos lovers&rdquoQubbat Oshaq Al-Nabi&rdquo , on the northern side of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

- North West the Dome of the Rock. The facade of the spring and its decoration is similar to the door of the chain spring &ldquo Bab Al-Silsila &ldquo and other springs of Sultan Suleiman, where scattered in the ancient city and around it.

- In the center of the spring and above the basin is a plaque engraving the titles of Sultan Suleiman Al-Qanouni who ordered the construction of the spring. There is a small marble plate above the previous painting with two lines in the Ottoman language and in very small letters and the inscription is used to reconstruct this spring later. There is a terrace directly behind the spring, so that the rear facade of the avenue is a mihrab &rdquo niche&rdquo of this mausoleum and above the mihrab &ldquoniche &rdquo there is a renewal painting of it, by order of Sultan Suleiman Al-Qanouni.

- The spring was supplied through the canal that transported water from Sulieman&rsquos pond to Jerusalem. But, the spring is disabled now.
In 1418 AH / 1997 AD. A place of ablution was built around the spring of Suleiman, consisting of 34 faucet with stone benches.

Al-basiri ( Ibrahim Al-roumi ) spring

Landmark Location:
Eastern of Bab Al-Nathir, western of Al-Aqsa mosque.

Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock: Southeast of Qubbat Al-Sakhra &ldquo dome of the rock&rdquo

Landmark History:
It was repaired in 839 AH 1435 AD.

Reason of the name:
Relative to Alaa Al-Din AL-Basiri, who constructed it, and the name of the spring is attributed to Ibrahim Al-Roumi who repaired it.

Details of the shape:
-Is a square-shaped building with a length of three and a half meters. Each side has a large window with an iron railing on it. The eastern window is used as an entrance to the spring. It ascends two steps and there is an opening for the well in the middle of the spring.
-It seems that the style of the building of the spring where the decoration of the Persians teeth, on the upper edge, from the shallow (low and without a neck) that do not resemble Mamluk domes, that it was rebuilt in the Ottoman era.
-Interestingly, it was stated in the inscription: that the builder Haj Ibrahim Al-Roumi wanted to let poor people to drink from the well, and it is not permissible for anyone who wants to fill his bottle (for the purpose of selling water) to use the well.

An Overview of the Landmark:
Relative to Alaa Al-Din AL-Basiri, who constructed it, and the name of the spring is attributed to Ibrahim Al-Roumi who repaired it. Eastern of Bab Al-Nathir, western of Al-Aqsa mosque. Southeast of Qubbat Al-Sakhra &ldquo dome of the rock&rdquo It was constructed by Alaa AL-Din Al-basiri, and repaired by Ibrahim AL-roumi. It was repaired in 839 AH 1435 AD. It Is a square-shaped building with a length of three and a half meters. Each side has a large window with an iron railing on it. The eastern window is used as an entrance to the spring. It ascends two steps and there is an opening for the well in the middle of the spring.

It seems that the style of the building of the spring where the decoration of the Persians teeth, on the upper edge, from the shallow (low and without a neck) that do not resemble Mamluk domes, that it was rebuilt in the Ottoman era.
Interestingly, it was stated in the inscription: that the builder Haj Ibrahim Al-Roumi wanted to let poor people to drink from the well, and it is not permissible for anyone who wants to fill his bottle (for the purpose of selling water) to use the well.

Al-Shaikh Al-Bderi ( Mustafa Agha ) Spring

Landmark Location:
The spring is located about 20 meters southeast of Bab al-Nazer, west of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
Southwest Dome of the Rock.

Landmark History:
1153 AH 1740 AD.

Reason of the name:
Relative to its constructor Mustafa Agha, and Al-Bderi, because Al-Shaikh Mohammed Bdeir, built it later, or maybe just because the spring is located in the face of Al-Shaikh Bder&rsquos home and his mausoleum.

Builder Name:
Mustafa Agha with an order from the governor &ldquo Osman Bey Al-Faqari&rdquo.

Details of the shape:
-It is the construction of the base box with one and a half length meter, and a height of 4 meters.
-The spring is joined by a balcony of the same name. There are two stairs for the person who wants to climb to the basin where he used to get water through the waterer . He used to bring the water to the spring for 24 loaves of bread.
-Above the base are four short columns of ornate marble, And the northern, western and southern front facade are open and each has an iron railing with a hole to fill the cup from the basin.
-The fourth area is the east is a stone wall, on the roof of the spring a stone dome, and in the east wall closed at a height of about two meters above the mastaba, a 62 * 40 cm panel with seven lines of poetry in a text hand&ldquo Naskh&rdquo in small letters and through the text poetic description of the spring, that its water heals the echo.

Additional Information about the landmark:
-The spring is disabled now.

About the landmark:
- Relative to its constructor Mustafa Agha, and Al-Bderi, because Al-Shaikh Mohammed Bdeir, built it later, or maybe just because the spring is located in the face of Al-Shaikh Bder&rsquos home and his mausoleum. The spring is located about 20 meters southeast of Bab al-Nazer, west of Al-Aqsa Mosque. Mustafa Agha with an order from the governor &ldquo Osman Bey Al-Faqari&rdquo 1153 AH 1740 AD . It is the construction of the base box with one and a half length meter, and a height of 4 meters.
- The spring is joined by a balcony of the same name. There are two stairs for the person who wants to climb to the basin where he used to get water through the waterer . He used to bring the water to the spring for 24 loaves of bread. Above the base are four short columns of ornate marble. And the northern, western and southern front facade are open and each has an iron railing with a hole to fill the cup from the basin. The fourth area is the east is a stone wall, on the roof of the spring a stone dome, and in the east wall closed at a height of about two meters above the mastaba, a 62 * 40 cm panel with seven lines of poetry in a text hand&ldquo Naskh&rdquo in small letters and through the text poetic description of the spring, that its water heals the echo.

Shalaan spring

Landmark Location:
Below the staircase of the North Western pillars leading to the Dome of the Rock bowl off the door of the beholder west of Al Aqsa Mosque.

Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
The Western of the Dome of the Rock.

Landmark History:
In the Ayyubid period (613 Hijri AD 1216) and was renewed in the Mamluk period (832 AH / 1429) and then the Ottoman.

Reason of the name:
In relation to the family of Shaalan, whose sons took the job of watering in this spring, and Ibrahim Bin Shalaan was one of them.

Builder Name:
The spring was established by Muhammad ibn Erwa al-Musli in 613 AH 1216 AD during the time of King Issa al-Ayyubi.
And then renewed in the Mamluk era in the time of Ashraf Barbesai in 832 AH / 1429 by the head of the Al-Aqsa Mosque Shaheen Al-Shuja'i. It was renovated in the Ottoman period by Pirm Pasha, governor of Egypt under the supervision of the governor of Jerusalem, Mohammed Basha.

Details of the shape:
-On the interface of the road are three paintings of the first inscription from the left, indicating the Ayyubid construction and the right panel to the Ottoman renovation.
-The spring was supplied from the Erwa well under the door. The well is located inside a registration room, a small room topped by a beautiful stone dome.

Additional Information about the landmark:
- The presence of three engravings shows the greatness of this spring and its importance and is located in front of the door of the beholder one of the main doors of the Al-Aqsa Mosque where the seat of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques.
-It is interesting that the spring was not named by people in the name of the kings and princes who lived but was in the name of the family Shaalan, whose sons took the job of watering in this spring, Ibrahim bin Shaalan. However, the spring was until the last era of the British occupation, but today it is disabled.

An Overview of the Landmark:
- Below the staircase of the North Western pillars leading to the Dome of the Rock bowl off the door of the beholder west of Al Aqsa Mosque.

- The spring was established by Muhammad ibn Erwa al-Musli in 613 AH 1216 AD during the time of King Issa al-Ayyubi. And then renewed in the Mamluk era in the time of Ashraf Barbesai in 832 AH / 1429 by the head of the Al-Aqsa Mosque Shaheen Al-Shuja&rsquoi. It was renovated in the Ottoman period by Pirm Pasha, governor of Egypt under the supervision of the governor of Jerusalem, Mohammed Basha.
In the Ayyubid period (613 Hijri AD 1216) and was renewed in the Mamluk period (832 AH / 1429) and then the Ottoman. On the interface of the road are three paintings of the first inscription from the left, indicating the Ayyubid construction and the right panel to the Ottoman renovation.

- The spring was supplied from the Erwa well under the door. The well is located inside a registration room, a small room topped by a beautiful stone dome.
The presence of three engravings shows the greatness of this spring and its importance and is located in front of the door of the beholder one of the main doors of the Al-Aqsa Mosque where the seat of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques.
It is interesting that the spring was not named by people in the name of the kings and princes who lived but was in the name of the family Shaalan, whose sons took the job of watering in this spring, Ibrahim bin Shaalan. However, the spring was until the last era of the British occupation, but today it is disabled.

Qayt Bay spring

Landmark Location:
In the face of Bab Al-Mtahra next to the road leading to the western staircase to the
rock.Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
In the western side of Qubbat Al-Sakhra, dome of the rock.

Landmark History:
In the Mamluk period in AH 859 / AD 1455, the building was rebuilt in 887 AH / 1482 AD. The building was renewed in 1300 AH / 1882 AD

Reason of the name:
In relation to the Mamluk Sultan, Ashraf Qaitbay, who ordered the rebuilding of the spring.

Builder Name: The Mamluk sultan, Inal Sabila, was rebuilt by the Mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Qaitbay. Then the new spring in the era of the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II.

Details of the shape:
-High and beautiful, height of 13 meters and the width of the base square 4.5 meters opened three large windows to provide water as it ascends to degrees and on the west side is the door of the spring.
-It was used in the construction of colored stones in what is known as Al-Mashhar or Al-Ablaq. It has a beautiful stone dome decorated with floral motifs from the outside. It is the only one in Al-Aqsa Mosque, which is decorated from the outside.
-One of its aesthetics is the fact that it did not move from square to dome directly in contrast to the shallow Ottoman domes, from square shape to triangles.

Additional Information about the landmark:
-On the spring there is a large terrace with a stone niche dating back to the Mamluk period.
-Below the spring there is a large well-watered well that extends to the western gallery of Al-Aqsa length of 28 meters and width 6 meters and depth of 11 meters and a half meters.
-There is an exquisite book that chronicles the sultans who live the way and explains the purpose of building the spring and a verse of the Holy Quran.
-In 140 AH / 1981 AD. Zionist excavations were found stretching from west to east under Bab Al-mtahar and implemented to the well for a length of more than 25 meters inside the courtyards of Al-Aqsa Mosque and not separated only a few meters from the Dome of the Rock in Al-Aqsa Mosque and still pass through two sets of faucets In its southern and northern regions.

An Overview of the Landmark:
It is In the face of Bab Al-Mtahra next to the road leading to the western staircase to the rock. In the western side of Qubbat Al-Sakhra, dome of the rock. The Mamluk sultan, Inal Sabila, was rebuilt by the Mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Qaitbay. Then the new spring in the era of the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II. In the Mamluk period in AH 859 / AD 1455, the building was rebuilt in 887 AH / 1482 AD. The building was renewed in 1300 AH / 1882 AD
High and beautiful, height of 13 meters and the width of the base square 4.5 meters opened three large windows to provide water as it ascends to degrees and on the west side is the door of the spring.
It was used in the construction of colored stones in what is known as Al-Mashhar or Al-Ablaq. It has a beautiful stone dome decorated with floral motifs from the outside. It is the only one in Al-Aqsa Mosque, which is decorated from the outside. One of its aesthetics is the fact that it did not move from square to dome directly in contrast to the shallow Ottoman domes, from square shape to triangles. On the spring there is a large terrace with a stone niche dating back to the Mamluk period. Below the spring there is a large well-watered well that extends to the western gallery of Al-Aqsa length of 28 meters and width 6 meters and depth of 11 meters and a half meters. There is an exquisite book that chronicles the sultans who live the way and explains the purpose of building the spring and a verse of the Holy Quran. In 140 AH / 1981 AD. Zionist excavations were found stretching from west to east under Bab Al-mtahar and implemented to the well for a length of more than 25 meters inside the courtyards of Al-Aqsa Mosque and not separated only a few meters from the Dome of the Rock in Al-Aqsa Mosque and still pass through two sets of faucets In its southern and northern regions.

Qasem Basha spring Bab Al-Mahkmeh spring

Landmark Location:
East of Al-Ashrafieh school, and south of the pind of Narang in the western side of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
Southwest Qubbat Al-Sakhra &ldquo Dome of the Rock&rdquo.

Landmark History:
933 AH 1527 AD
. In the Ottoman era.

Reason of the name:
Renovated and reconstructed by the governor of Jerusalem Qasim Basha.

Builder Name:
Renovated and reconstructed by the governor of Jerusalem Qasim Basha, in the reign of Sultan Suleiman Al-Qanouni.

Details of the shape:
-The spring is octagonal, topped by a dome shaped like a helmet. It consist of sixteen faucets, which drop about 1.43 meters from the mosque, so that the water of the channel coming from under Bab Al-Silsila, flows into its reservoir and descends to the faucets of the spring through four degrees from its eight sides.
- Lead covered wood prevents sunlight to reach people in the summer and winter rains.
-It is likely that the spring was built at the site of Fesqiyah, which was established by the Mamluk Sultan Qaitbay, south of Qaitbay terrace spring, as mentioned by Mujair Al-Din.

Additional Information about the landmark:
-This was confirmed by Muhammad ibn Khudr al-Roumi dated 982 AH / 1574AD, who lived in the beginning of the Ottoman era in saying: There are also two springs towards the Al-Ashrafiyya school, which is attributed to the late Sultan Qaitbay, one is for Al-Hanafyah and the other is for Al-Shafeyah.
-We understand from the view of Al-Rumi that the spring of Qaitbay was the wudoo &lsquoof Al-Shafi&rsquoiyah (the Mamluk state doctrine). Al-Fesqiyah spring Qasem basha later, was the wudoo&rsquo of Al-Hanafyah ( The ottoman state doctrine).
-Providing the spring through the channel of the spring from Sulieman&rsquos ponds until the British Mandate period, and then became supplied with water from the sewage pipes.
-The spring was repaired in 1418H (1997 AD).

An Overview of the Landmark:
Relative to the renovated and reconstructed Qasim Basha, and is called Bab Al-Makhmeh spring relative to Bab Al-Silsila spring that is located near it. It is located in the east of Al-Ashrafieh school, and south of the pind of Narang in the western side of Al-Aqsa Mosque, and southwest Qubbat Al-Sakhra &ldquo Dome of the Rock&rdquo. It was renovated and reconstructed by the governor of Jerusalem Qasim Basha, in the reign of Sultan Suleiman Al-Qanouni, in 933 AH 1527 AD. In the Ottoman era. The spring is octagonal, topped by a dome shaped like a helmet. It consist of sixteen faucets, which drop about 1.43 meters from the mosque, so that the water of the channel coming from under Bab Al-Silsila, flows into its reservoir and descends to the faucets of the spring through four degrees from its eight sides. Lead-covered wood prevents sunlight to reach people in the summer and winter rains.
It is likely that the spring was built at the site of Fesqiyah, which was established by the Mamluk Sultan Qaitbay, south of Qaitbay terrace spring, as mentioned by Mujair Al-Din. This was confirmed by Muhammad ibn Khudr al-Roumi dated 982 AH / 1574AD, who lived in the beginning of the Ottoman era in saying: There are also two springs towards the Al-Ashrafiyya school, which is attributed to the late Sultan Qaitbay, one is for Al-Hanafyah and the other is for Al-Shafeyah.
We understand from the view of Al-Rumi that the spring of Qaitbay was the wudoo &lsquoof Al-Shafi&rsquoiyah (the Mamluk state doctrine). Al-Fesqiyah spring Qasem basha later, was the wudoo&rsquo of Al-Hanafyah ( The ottoman state doctrine).
Providing the spring through the channel of the spring from Sulieman&rsquos ponds until the British Mandate period, and then became supplied with water from the sewage pipes. The spring was repaired in 1418H (1997 AD).

Bab Al-Mgharba spring

Landmark Location:
The eastern of Bab Al-Mgharba, the northern of Al-Mgharba mosque, in the western side of AL-Aqsa mosque.

Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
The southwest side of the Dome of the Rock.

Landmark History:
The begging of the Ottoman Era.

Reason of the name:
Because of its location, the eastern of Bab Al-Mgharaba.

Builder Name: The Ottomans

Details of the shape:
The spring consists of the construction of a square length of about 3.5 m wide open in each of its western and southern sides and the northern window for watering, while the eastern section of the door to climb a stairway. The well is located in the center of the spring and is topped by an Ottoman shallow dome. And it is similar to the spring of Ibrahim al-Roumi.

An Overview of the Landmark:
It was called because of its location, the eastern of Bab Al-Mgharaba. It was built in the beginning of the Ottoman Era.
The eastern of Bab Al-Mgharba, the northern of Al-Mgharba mosque, in the western side of AL-Aqsa mosque. The southwest side of the Dome of the Rock. The spring consists of the construction of a square length of about 3.5 m wide open in each of its western and southern sides and the northern window for watering, while the eastern section of the door to climb a stairway. The well is located in the center of the spring and is topped by an Ottoman shallow dome. And it is similar to the spring of Ibrahim al-Roumi.

Doubled terrace spring

Landmark Location:
In the southern side of Al-Aqsa between the two terraces.

Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
Southwest of Qubbat Al-Sakhra, &ldquodome of the rock&rdquo.

Landmark History:
Was constructed in the new era.

Reason of the name:
Relative to its location between the two terraces.

An Overview of the Landmark:
- It is located in the southern side of Al-Aqsa between the two terraces, Southwest of Qubbat Al-Sakhra, &ldquodome of the rock&rdquo.
- It&rsquos name relative to its location between the two terraces, in the southern side of AL-Aqsa between the two terraces, southwest of qubbat Al-sakhra, &ldquo dome of the rock&rdquo, it was constructed in the new era.

The cup spring Mayda’at Al-Kaas

Landmark Location: Is located in front of Al-Qibli Mosque in the middle of the distance between it and the southern pillars leading to the Dome of the Rock the southern side of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
The southern of Dome of the Rock.

Landmark History:
737 AH. 1339 AD
. in the Mamluk era.

Reason of the name:
The cup spring Mayda&rsquoat Al-Kaas ( place of ablution The place where people do wudoo 'in preparation for prayer Al-Kaas spring. Called Al-Kaas spring because of its shape which looks like a cup. Also, It has other names, such as: &ldquo Blessing&rdquo.

Builder Name:
The Nazarene

Details of the shape:
-It consists of a circular pond with a cup in its center, from which the water flows into the pond. It pours from the cup to the pond, beautifully, and then from the pool to the taps 20 tap.
-People spring of the cup for wudoo&rsquo ( ablution) in particular, where they come down to the beautiful stone chairs, with several degrees.

The history of the spring:
-The oldest mention of the cup spring dates back to 737 AH / 1339 AD in the Mamluk period, where the traveler Khalid bin Issa al-Balawi recalled during his visit, saying: &ldquoIn this bowl, a water tank comes from an arduous distance, and a faraway camouflage from the ground. Its&rsquo mountains were cut off, and the great rocks were cracked with hard money and heavy hands, until the water poured on Al-Aqsa Mosque and it was crushed and spilled which led to a (pool or basin) of a large marble in front of the Great Mosque in the middle of which a sparkling water. It is clear from the description of Balawi that the spring of the cup returned by the water channel.&rdquo
-Many of Al-Aqsa landmarks&rsquo books attribute the construction of the spring to the great Ayyubid sultan, Salah Al-Din&rsquos brother, 589 AH. 1193 AD. and was reestablished in the time of Al-Mamluk prince The Nazarene.
However, we do not find any historical indication of the attribution the cup to the Ayyubids. To discuss this, see the text of the historian Majier al-Din: al-Nasseri, who crossed the water channel to the city of Al-Quds Al-Sharif ( Jerusalem ), the beginning of its architecture in Shawwal, twenty-seven and seven hundred, arrived in Al-Quds Al-Sharif ( Jerusalem) and entered the center of al-Aqsa Mosque in late spring, twenty-eight and seven hundred and worked the marble pond between rock and Al-Aqsa to Al-Sabil ( the spring ), the cup is related to the spring channel. The history books did not mention Adel al-Ayoubi as a constructor of the spring channel. Majier al-Dins text tells us that Al-Nasri made the marble pond, not constructing it, because if he constructed it, we would say that he did so after a damage, but what did he mean by &ldquo constructing &ldquo is &ldquo making &ldquo &ldquo working&rdquo . However, in another text, Ibn Katheer mentioned the time of the pond construction with an order from Al-Nasri :&rdquo in the late month of march, the channel reached Jerusalem who ordered its construction and establishment, Al-Nasri, he did so with the governors of those areas muslims were happy, it even reached Al-Aqsa mosque beach, which caused a huge pond it is, however, a marble between the rock and Al-Aqsa, its construction begun at the month of Shawwal in the last year.&rdquo

-The Ottoman Era:
Al-Kaas spring was renewed in the time of the Ottoman Sultan &ldquo Sulieman Al-qanouni&rdquo, as the traveler Olia Jalabi mintioned in his book &ldquosayiaihtinamuh&rdquo: &ldquo The steps then proceed directly towards a large water basin built of marble, cut from one block according to the Sultan&rsquos own instructions. It is a unique and unmatched landmark on the ground.&rdquo

-The History of the Spring summary:
Based on the testimonies of historians and travelers, which indicate that the spring when Tankz Al-Nasri built was a basin (or pond &ndash as mentioned Majier Al-Din) and that Sulieman added the cup &ldquo Al-Kaas&rdquo from which the water goes out of the basin of one piece of marble &ndash as we see until today. In addition, the spring remained a large basin Water drink directly from visitors. The excess water from the cup &ldquo Al-Kaas&rdquo basin passed through a ground channel to the nearby lake well, As Abdul Ghani Nabulsi pointed out, &ldquoWe found the cup in front of the doors of Al-Aqsa Mosque, a large marble cupboard, five cubits deep in five arms, in a fountain in the center of the large, And it is poured into the sinks around it and being a large tank in the land of the mosque about forty cubits and width as well, and has four mouths built with stones &ndash to extract water with buckets &ndash in the form of humans »| In 1340 AH / 1922, the Supreme Islamic Council decided to put Darbizin &ldquo fences &ldquo around the pond to prevent tampering with the abusers and then renewed the stone chairs around him and worked taps for ablution.

Sheikh Raed Salah, head of the Islamic Movement in Palestine 48, Sheikh al-Aqsa Mosque, said that the excavations of the Zionists in the vicinity of Al- Aqsa Mosque and below it reached under this cup &ldquo Al-Kaas&rdquo , which indicates that it reached a dangerous stage that threatens the heart of Al-Aqsa Mosque and not only external parts.

An Overview of the Landmark:
The cup spring or Mayda&rsquoat Al-kaas spring. It is located in front of Al-Qibli Mosque in the middle of the distance between it and the southern pillars leading to the Dome of the Rock the southern side of Al-Aqsa Mosque. It was named the cup because of its shape which looks like a cup. Also, It has other names, such as: &ldquo Blessing&rdquo. Tnkz Al-Nasri built it in 737 AH &ndash 1339 AD. in the Mamluk Era. It consists of a circular pond with a cup in its center, from which the water flows into the pond. It pours from the cup to the pond, beautifully, and then from the pool to the taps 20 tap. People spring of the cup for wudoo&rsquo ( ablution) in particular, where they come down to the beautiful stone chairs, with several degrees.

The history of the spring:
The oldest mention of the cup spring dates back to 737 AH / 1339 AD in the Mamluk period, where the traveler Khalid bin Issa al-Balawi recalled during his visit, saying: &ldquoIn this bowl, a water tank comes from an arduous distance, and a faraway camouflage from the ground. Its&rsquo mountains were cut off, and the great rocks were cracked with hard money and heavy hands, until the water poured on Al-Aqsa Mosque and it was crushed and spilled which led to a (pond or basin) of a large marble in front of the Great Mosque in the middle of which a sparkling water. It is clear from the description of Balawi that the spring of the cup returned by the water channel.&rdquo
Many of Al-Aqsa landmarks&rsquo books attribute the construction of the spring to the great Ayyubid sultan, Salah Al-Din&rsquos brother, 589 AH. 1193 AD. and was reestablished in the time of Al-Mamluk prince The Nazarene.

However, we do not find any historical indication of the attribution the cup to the Ayyubids. To discuss this, see the text of the historian Majier al-Din: al-Nasseri, who crossed the water channel to the city of Al-Quds Al-Sharif ( Jerusalem ), the beginning of its architecture in Shawwal, twenty-seven and seven hundred, arrived in Al-Quds Al-Sharif ( Jerusalem) and entered the center of al-Aqsa Mosque in late spring, twenty-eight and seven hundred and worked the marble pond between rock and Al-Aqsa to Al-Sabil ( the spring ), the cup is related to the spring channel. The history books did not mention Adel al-Ayoubi as a constructor of the spring channel. Majier al-Dins text tells us that Al-Nasri made the marble pond, not constructing it, because if he constructed it, we would say that he did so after a damage, but what did he mean by &ldquo constructing &ldquo is &ldquo making &ldquo &ldquo working&rdquo . However, in another text, Ibn Katheer mentioned the time of the pond construction with an order from Al-Nasri :&rdquo in the late month of march, the channel reached Jerusalem who ordered its construction and establishment, Al-Nasri, he did so with the governors of those areas muslims were happy, it even reached Al-Aqsa mosque beach, which caused a huge pond it is, however, a marble between the rock and Al-Aqsa, its construction begun at the month of Shawwal in the last year.&rdquo

&ndash Al-Kaas spring was renewed in the time of the Ottoman Sultan &ldquo Sulieman Al-qanouni&rdquo, as the traveler Olia Jalabi mentioned in his book &ldquosayiaihtinamuh&rdquo: &ldquo The steps then proceed directly towards a large water basin built of marble, cut from one block according to the Sultan&rsquos own instructions. It is a unique and unmatched landmark on the ground.&rdquo

-Based on the testimonies of historians and travelers, which indicate that the spring when Tankz Al-Nasri built was a basin (or pond &ndash as mentioned Majier Al-Din) and that Sulieman added the cup &ldquo Al-Kaas&rdquo from which the water goes out of the basin of one piece of marble &ndash as we see until today.
- In addition, the spring remained a large basin Water drink directly from visitors. The excess water from the cup &ldquo Al-Kaas&rdquo basin passed through a ground channel to the nearby lake well, As Abdul Ghani Nabulsi pointed out, &ldquoWe found the cup in front of the doors of Al-Aqsa Mosque, a large marble cupboard, five cubits deep in five arms, in a fountain in the center of the large, And it is poured into the sinks around it and being a large tank in the land of the mosque about forty cubits and width as well, and has four mouths built with stones &ndash to extract water with buckets &ndash in the form of humans »| In 1340 AH / 1922, the Supreme Islamic Council decided to put Darbizin &ldquo fences &ldquo around the pond to prevent tampering with the abusers and then renewed the stone chairs around him and worked taps for ablution.

-Sheikh Raed Salah, head of the Islamic Movement in Palestine 48, Sheikh al-Aqsa Mosque, said that the excavations of the Zionists in the vicinity of Al- Aqsa Mosque and below it reached under this cup &ldquo Al-Kaas&rdquo , which indicates that it reached a dangerous stage that threatens the heart of Al-Aqsa Mosque and not only external parts

AL-Zaytona spring

Landmark Location:
The southern side of Al-Aqsa mosque, the northern of Al-Kaas spring.

Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
The southern western side of Qubbat Al-Sakhra ( dome of the rock )

Landmark History:
In the new era.

Reason of the name:
Relative to the olive tree which is located in the center of the spring, surrounded by taps.

Details of the shape:
There is an ancient olive tree in the site of the spring, in the Ottoman period, called Al- Zaytouna of the Prophet ,and its olive tree where the folk tale tells that the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, planted it. It is mentioned that at the beginning of the last century, the sheens of the prophet Moses season were around that tree.

An Overview of the Landmark:
Reltive to the olive tree which is located in the center of the spting, surrrouned by taps, it is in the southern side of Al-Aqsa mosque, there is an ancient olive tree in the site of the spring, in the ottoman period, called Al-Zaytouna o th prophet, and its olive tree where the folk tale tells that the propthet Muhammad peace be upon him, planted it. It is mentioned that at the begginning of the last century, the sheens of the prophtet Moses season were around that tree. The spring was constrcuted in the new era.

Southern of Al-Nahawya school spring

Landmark Location:
The southern of Al-Nahwaya school.

Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock: Southwest Dome of the Rock.

Reason of the name: Because it is located in the south.

Details of the shape:
-One of the greatest springs of Al-Aqsa, for ablution, however, many cubes stone were placed for people to sit in front of the taps.
-It consists 30 faucets.

An Overview of the Landmark:
One of the greatest springs of Al-Aqsa, for ablution, however, many cubes stone were placed for people to sit in front of the taps

Burhan Al-Din Rostrum spring

Landmark Location:
Adjacent to the stairs of the South pillars from the west behind Burhan al-Din pulpit south of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
Southern of Qubbat Al-Sakhra &ldquo Dome of the rock &ldquo.

Landmark History:
At the end of 1418 AH 1998 AD.

Reason of the name:
Relative to its location behind Burhan al-Din rostrum.

Builder Name:
Reconstruction Committee.

Details of the shape:
-It has 24 faucets

An Overview of the Landmark:
It is located adjacent to the south of the pillars to the west behind the Burhan al-Din rostrum south of Al-Aqsa Mosque, south of the Dome of the Rock. It was recently established by the Committee for Reconstruction at the end of 1418 AH / 1998. It has 24 faucets.

Hasan Al-Dani spring

Landmark Location: Located based on the facade of the northern of Al-Qubba Al-nahawya.

Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock: Southwest of the Dome of the Rock.

Landmark History: 1137 AH 1724 AD.

Reason of the name: Relative to its constructor.

Builder Name:
Hasan Al-Dani.

Details of the shape:
Nothing left of the spring but some ashes on the floor, and engraving.

An Overview of the Landmark:
Hasan Al-Dani spring, it was constructed by Hasan Al-Dani Al-Husainy, in 1137 AH 1724 AD. In the Ottoman era, the reason behind its name relative to its constructor Hasan Al-Dani, it is located based on the facade of the northern of Al-Qubba Al-Nahawayh. Nothing left of the spring but some ashes on the floor and engraving.


Helmet and cuirass (peti)

Formerly in the collection of Prince Frederick Augustus, Duke of York (died 1827), acquired by the Armouries at the Tower of London before 1841.

Physical Description

The cuirass is formed of a quilted fabric belt or band, covered in red velvet and embroidered with a repeating pattern of flowers in gold thread. It is lined with blue and white cotton, and fastened through five pairs of brass loops at the front, by the original gold covered cord two of the loops at the left are missing.

The helmet has a low skull divided into six segments, a peak, side defences of double U-shape, and a deep, trapezoid neck defence. It is covered in red velvet embroidered with panels of gold flowers, and bound around the base of the skull with a five-banded turban of dark green silk. The helmet cord is formed of two broad lengths of black silk. The inside of the neck defence is lined in blue silk brocade, worked with a diaper of flowers in gold. Conservation work has revealed an embedded loop of red velvet centrally positioned at the front of the helmet beneath the securing band, which gives clear evidence that a nasal guard was once in place, although this is now lost. See XXVIA.57 as an example of a helmet with a nasal defence in the style typically associated with South India.

Featured in

HelmetDepth290 mm
HelmetHeight495 mm
HelmetWeight1.303 kg
HelmetWidth370 mm
CuirassHeight230 mm
CuirassLength935 mm
CuirassWeight1.403 kg

Inscriptions and Marks

Associations

Bibliographic References

The Tower: Its History, Armories and Antiquities

J. Hewitt, Official catalogue of the Tower Armouries, London, 1859, no. xv.406-7, p. 111.

W. Egerton, An illustrated handbook of Indian arms, London, 1880, no. 587T, p. 124.

Viscount Dillon, Illustrated guide to the Armouries, London, 1910, no. xv.477-8, p. 14.

H.R. Robinson, Oriental armour, London, 1968.

C.A. Bayly, The Raj, India and the British 1600-1947, London, National Portrait Gallery, 1990, no. 162, p. 157.

S. Z. Haider, Islamic arms and armour of Muslim India, Lahore, 1991, pl. 36.

Thom Richardson, An introduction to Indian arms and armour, Leeds, Royal Armouries, 2007: 36

Tipu was a tenacious opponent and British forces struggled to defeat him. After he was killed during the storming of his stronghold at Seringapatam on 4 May 1799, his palace and city were plundered, including the arsenals, and the war booty distributed or auctioned off. A kind of ‘Tipu mania’ took hold in Britain, and any objects believed to have had association with the man himself became extremely fashionable, however tenuous the connection. Lord Mornington, the Governor General, instructed that many of the most prestigious items thought to be directly linked to Tipu should be presented to the King and other members of the Royal Family. The Duke of York, Prince Frederick Augustus (second son of George III, who became Commander-in-Chief of the British Army), acquired this armour. After the Duke of York's collection was auctioned following his death in 1827, several pieces ultimately came to the Tower Armouries, including this helmet and cuirass. The 1841 guide to the Tower went on to record a helmet and belt on show in the Eastern Vestibule which came from the collection of the late Duke of York, and had belonged to ‘Tippoo Saib’.

Although it cannot be ascertained for sure that this helmet and cuirass belonged to Tipu himself, the armour is of superior quality and would likely have been worn by a high-ranking courtier or official, at the very least. The presence of the helmet and cuirass in the collection of the Duke of York suggests they were among the items specially selected for distribution to members of the British royal family.

These fabric armours were based on ancient forms, worn by warriors across the southern regions of the subcontinent for centuries. Wadded textile combined light flexibility with robust efficacy as a defence, and it seems to have remained popular despite the influence of the metal mail and plate armours that were widely used in northern and central India.

Previous notes on this armour recorded that another similar helmet was sold at Sotheby's, New York, 13 January 1995, lot 1341. It was first noticed by Z Zygulski at a dealer's in New York in 1994.

This helmet and body armour once belonged in the armoury of the famous 'Tiger of Mysore', the ruler Tipu Sultan (reign 1782 - 1799).

Tipu fought for many years against British forces in India. However, on 4th May 1799, he found himself surrounded in his fortress at Seringapatam. The walls were stormed by British and Indian troops, leading to bitter fighting against the Sultan's defenders. As the battle raged, Tipu was killed, and the contents of his palace and arsenals became trophies of war. The most prestigious objects, thought to be linked to Tipu himself, were shipped to England and sent to the British royal family. Duke of York, Prince Frederick, second son of George III, acquired this embroidered armour.

Fabric armour like this are based on ancient armours worn by the warriors of southern India for centuries. The layers of cotton, silk and velvet form a thick but flexible barrier to protect vulnerable areas of the body. They remained popular despite the influence of metal mail and plate armours used widely in northern and central India. Tipu Sultan modernised his armies and commissioned advanced weapons. However, his use of some traditional equipment like this armour continued and this allowed him to maintain strong links to the South Indian heritage of his kingdom.

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You must , where You make any Non-Commercial Use of the Our Content or any Use of Our Crown Copyright Content:

  • acknowledge the source of the Content by including an Attribution provided that if you are using Content from several rights owners and sources and therefore listing multiple attributions is not practical in your product or application, you may include a URL or hyperlink to a resource that contains the required attribution statements
  • ensure that where Content is Used the source of the Content is also identified alongside the Attribution, e.g. ‘Title, Artist, Date of Work, Photo'
  • ensure that any onward licensing of the Content - for example where You permit Your work which includes reference to Our Content or Our Crown Copyright Content alongside other Content to be Used by Third Parties - is also subject to these terms

These are important conditions of this licence and if You fail to comply with them or make Commercial Use of Our Content without Our prior written consent the rights granted to you under this licence will terminate automatically.

This licence to make Non-Commercial Use of Our Content and/or Commercial Use and Non Commercial use of Our Crown Copyright Content along with Our licence to make Commercial Use of Our Content does/will not cover the Use of:

  • any personal data within the Content
  • any information that has neither been published nor disclosed to You under information access legislation (including the FOI Regime) by or with the consent of the Royal Armouries
  • departmental or public sector organisation logos, crests, military insignia and the Royal Arms except where they form an integral part of a document or dataset within Our Content
  • Third Party IPR (other than Our Crown Copyright Content) which the Royal Armouries is not authorised to license
  • identity documents such as the British Passport.

No warranty

The Content is licensed ‘as is' and the Royal Armouries excludes all representations, warranties, obligations and liabilities in relation to the Content to the maximum extent permitted by law.

The Royal Armouries is not liable for any errors or omissions in the Content (including errors or omissions resulting from Our negligence) and shall not be liable for any loss, injury or damage of any kind caused by its Use. The Royal Armouries does not guarantee the continued supply of Content.

Governing Law

This licence is governed by the laws of the jurisdiction of England & Wales.

About this Licence

The Royal Armouries has adapted this licence from the Non-Commercial Government Licence developed by the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationary Office. The Controller may, from time to time, issue new versions of the Non-Commercial Government Licence. However, You may continue to Use Content licensed under this version should you wish to do so.

Further context, best practice and guidance can be found in the UK Government Licensing Framework section on The National Archives Website

You are encouraged to use and re-use the Information that is available under this licence freely and flexibly, with only a few conditions.

This licence applies to information that is the copyright of the Board of Trustees of the Armouries.

Using information under this licence

Use of copyright and database right material expressly made available under this licence (the &lsquoInformation&rsquo) indicates your acceptance of the terms and conditions below.

The Licensor grants you a worldwide, royalty-free, perpetual, non-exclusive licence to use the Information for Non-Commercial purposes only subject to the conditions below.

This licence does not affect your freedom under fair dealing or fair use or any other copyright or database right exceptions and limitations.

  • copy, publish, distribute and transmit the Information
  • adapt the Information
  • combine the Information with other information.
  • exercise any of the rights granted to you by this licence in any manner that is primarily intended for or directed toward commercial advantage or private monetary compensation.

You must, where you do any of the above:

  • acknowledge the source of the Information by including the attribution © Royal Armouries and, where possible, provide a link to this licence
  • ensure that any onward licensing of the Information &ndash for example when combined with other information &ndash is for Non-Commercial purposes only
  • ensure that you do not use the Information in a way that suggests any official status or that the Royal Armouries endorses you or your use of the Information
  • ensure that you do not mislead others or misrepresent the Information or its source
  • ensure that your use of the Information does not breach the Data Protection Act 1998 or the Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003.

These are important conditions of this licence and if you fail to comply with them or use the information other than for Non-Commercial purposes the rights granted to you under this licence, or any similar licence granted by the Licensor, will end automatically.

This licence does not cover the use of:

  • personal data in the Information
  • Information that has neither been published nor disclosed under information access legislation (including the Freedom of Information Acts for the UK and Scotland) by or with the consent of the Royal Armouries
  • departmental or public sector organisation logos, crests, military insignia and the Royal Arms except where they form an integral part of a document or dataset
  • third party rights the Royal Armouries is not authorised to license
  • Information subject to other intellectual property rights, including patents, trade marks, and design rights and
  • identity documents such as the British Passport.

The Information is licensed &lsquoas is&rsquo and the Royal Armouries excludes all representations, warranties, obligations and liabilities in relation to the Information to the maximum extent permitted by law.

The Royal Armouries is not liable for any errors or omissions in the Information and shall not be liable for any loss, injury or damage of any kind caused by its use. The Royal Armouries does not guarantee the continued supply of the Information.

This licence is governed by the laws of the jurisdiction of the United Kingdom, unless otherwise.

In this licence the terms below have the following meanings:

&lsquoInformation&rsquo means information protected by copyright or by database right (for example, literary and artistic works, content, data and source code) offered for use under the terms of this licence.

&lsquoLicensor&rsquo means any Information Provider which has the authority to offer Information under the terms of this licence.

&lsquoNon-Commercial purposes&rsquo means not intended for or directed toward commercial advantage or private monetary compensation. For the purposes of this licence, &lsquoprivate monetary compensation&rsquo does not include the exchange of the Information for other copyrighted works by means of digital file-sharing or otherwise provided there is no payment of any monetary compensation in connection with the exchange of the Information.

&lsquoUse&rsquo as a verb, means doing any act which is restricted by copyright or database right, whether in the original medium or in any other medium, and includes without limitation distributing, copying, adapting, modifying as may be technically necessary to use it in a different mode or format.

&lsquoYou&rsquo means the natural or legal person, or body of persons corporate or incorporate, acquiring rights under this licence.

The Royal Armouries has adapted this licence from the Non-Commercial Government Licence developed by the Controller of Her Majesty&rsquos Stationary Office. The Controller may, from time to time, issue new versions of the Non-Commercial Government Licence. However, you may continue to use Information licensed under this version should you wish to do so.

Further context, best practice and guidance can be found in the UK Government Licensing Framework section on The National Archives website .


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