Battle of Laufach, 13 July 1866

Battle of Laufach, 13 July 1866

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Battle of Laufach, 13 July 1866

The battle of Laufach (13 July 1866) was a Prussian victory over German Federal troops who were trying to defend the exits from the Spessart Mountains and prevent the Prussians from approaching Frankfurt (Austro-Prussian War of 1866).

At the start of the war the Prussians faced two opponents in south-western Germany, the Federal 8th Corps around Frankfurt and the Bavarian Army (or Federal 7th Corps) at Bamburg. The 8th Corps was commanded by Prince Alexander of Hesse, the Bavarian Army by Prince Charles of Bavaria, who also had overall command of the two corps. The Prussians, under General Falckenstein, began the German campaign further north, in an attempt to eliminate the Hanoverian Army before it escape to the south. In an attempt to help the Hanoverians the Bavarians and 8th Corps decided to move north and concentrate somewhere near the Hanoverian's expected destination of Eisenach. In order to avoid leaving their respective bases vulnerable to attack, the two corps moved on different lines, separated by the Hohn Rhön Mountains. They originally intended to join up at Hersfeld. However on 29 June the Hanoverians surrendered, and this plan was no longer valid. Prince Charles wanted to abandon the move north, and unite the two corps at Kissingen, on the south-east side of the mountains, but Prince Alexander insisted on moving north. The two commanders agreed to join up at Fulda, to the north-west of the mountains.

Throughout this campaign the Prussians moved quicker than their German opponents. On 3 July they occupied Dermbach, a key position at the northern end of the mountains. On the following day the Bavarians were defeated in two separate engagements, east and south of the town (battle of Dermbach, 4 July 1866). It was now clear that the two corps couldn't meet up at Fulda, which soon fell to the Prussians. The 8th Corps began to retreat south-west back towards Frankfurt, while the Bavarians moved south, in the hope that they could defend the line of the River Saale. On 6 July news reached both Princes of the crushing Austrian defeat at Königgrätz. It was clear that the war could no longer be won, and both corps began to focus on the defence of their homelands.

Once again the Prussians moved quicker than expected. After the fighting at Dermbach they moved south-west to Fulda, as if they were chasing the 8th Corps. They then swung left and crossed the Hohn Rhön. On 10 July they defeated the Bavarians in two separate battles, at Kissingen and Hammelburg. The Bavarians retreated south and east in some confusion, temporarily baffling the Prussians. The Bavarians were saved from further defeats, at least for the moment, by events elsewhere. It was clear that peace negotiations would soon begin with Austria, and so Falckenstein was ordered to turn west and occupy the area north of the River Main, including Frankfurt, the capital of the German Confederation.

His route took him across the Spessart, a low range of wooded mountains at the southern end of the Hohn Rhön. The Prussians advanced along two routes. Goeben's Division was in the lead, following the road that led from Lohr on the Main across the mountains to Laufach and then Aschaffenburg. Manteuffel's Divison used the same route, but was some way behind Goeben. Finally Beyer's Division followed a more northerly route that emerged from the mountains at Hanau. At least in theory this left Goeben's division isolated and vulnerable if the 8th Corps concentrated against it.

The Bavarian defeats on the Saale had finally convinced Prince Alexander that the defence of Frankfurt was less important than joining up with the Bavarians. He decided to move south-east from Frankfurt to move around the southern end of the Spessart. The Hessian Brigade was ordered to move to Laufach to watch the Prussians and protect the left flank of the main movement.

The first contact between Goeben's men and the Hessians came at about 2pm, as the leading Prussian infantry, from Wrangel's Brigade, were approaching the village of Hayn, about a mile east of Laufach. At the time General Goeben was with the squadron from the 8th Hussars that found part of Frey's Hessian Brigade east of Laufach. The Hussars had to pause until the first Prussian infantry emerged from the railway tunnel east of Hayn. The Prussians drove the Hessians out of Laufach, then pushed west to Frohnhofen and finally to Weiberhöfe, three miles to the west of Laufach.

At this point Goeben believed the fight to be over. He ordered his main body to camp at Laufach, with a fusilier battalion watching the Hessians from Frohnhofen.

Although General von Perglas, commander of the Hessian Division, had been ordered to avoid serious conflict, he now decided to launch a counterattack on the Prussian positions. His preparations were detected by Lt Colonel von Rex, commander of the battalion at Frohnhofen, and he alerted Wrangel, who rushed his troops back to the front.

The Hessians managed to get an artillery battery onto the Geissen Berg, a hill overlooking Frohnhofen. Their attack began with an artillery bombardment, and the infantry then attacked on both sides of the road. Wrangel had to feed all off his reserves into the fight, but the Hessian attacks were all repulsed. The Prussians then moved up a battery of 12-pounder guns, and with their support launched a counterattack. The Hessians retreated back towards Aschaffenburg, having suffered rather pointless heavy losses.

The Prussians lost 66 men in the fighting around Laufach. In contrast the Hessians lost 79 dead and 384 wounded, out of a total of 777 casualties.

Late on 13 July Prince Alexander received new orders. He was to move south across the Odenwald, south/ south-east of Frankfurt, then turn east to reach Miltenberg on the Main. The two Federal corps would then unite at Uffenheim, south-east of Würzburg. This plan only lasted for a single day. On 14 July the Prussians won another battle, this time at Aschaffenburg (14 July 1866). This forced Prince Alexander to use a longer route, starting with the railway that ran through Darmstadt. The 8th Corp eventually ended up on the River Tauber, south of the Main, with the Bavarians close by to the north east.

This was only a temporary escape. The Prussians paused to occupy Frankfurt, which fell on 16 July. They then advanced south-east along the Main, before catching up with the 8th Corps on the Tauber. The Prussians defeated them there on 24 July (Battle of Tauberbischofsheim), then advanced towards Würzburg. On 25 July they inflicted separate defeats on the allies at Helmstadt and Gerchsheim, but by now the war was drawing to an end. There was more fighting around Rossbrun on 26 July, but things then began to die down. Würzburg surrendered on 2 August, just before a formal truce came into effect, ending the war.

Battle of Lissa (1866)

The Battle of Lissa (or Battle of Vis) (Croatian: Bitka kod Visa) took place on 20 July 1866 in the Adriatic Sea near the Dalmatian island of Vis (Lissa in Italian) and was a significant victory for an Austrian Empire force over a numerically superior Italian force. It was the first major sea battle between ironclads and one of the last to involve deliberate ramming. The Italian navy fired roughly 1450 shots during the engagement, but failed to sink any Austrian ship while losing two ironclads.

One of the main reasons for this poor performance was internal rivalry between the Italian fleet commanders: for example, Italian Vice Admiral Albini, with his ships, did not engage the enemy during the battle. [2] The engagement was made up of several small battles: the main battle was between seven Austrian and four Italian ironclads and showed the ability of Austrian commander Tegetthoff to divide his more numerous opponents and then destroy the isolated ironclads.

Associations involved

In this local battle on July 23, 1866 (about three weeks after the decisive battle of Königgrätz ) near Hundheim, the infantry regiment Saxe-Coburg-Gotha met the combined Prussian division Flies under the command of Colonel Hermann von Fabeck , the Baden division under the command of Prince Wilhelm of Baden .

The Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha infantry regiment had two infantry battalions. The brigade received support from a squadron of the Magdeburg Dragoon Regiment No. 6 and two artillery pieces, so that around 1300 men were deployed.

The 1st Infantry Brigade of the Baden Division was deployed with five battalions and two artillery departments - around 4,500 men.

Ordre de Bataille of the participating associations in a contemporary representation:

2nd (bad.) Division in the VIII Federal Army Corps 1866

Combined Division Flies in the Prussian Main Army 1866

Clara Barton Chronology 1861-1869 - Clara Barton NHS

The Civil War began with the firing on Ft. Sumter, South Carolina.

April 19, 1861

Riots in Baltimore, Maryland - En route to defend the nation’s capital, the 6th Massachusetts Infantry was attacked by mobs of southern-sympathizing Baltimoreans as the soldiers marched across town. They arrived in Washington, DC, beaten and with several members of their regiment dead. Miss Barton found them temporarily quartered in the

Senate Chamber of the US Capitol and provided supplies from her own household for their comfort. The overwhelming response to her request for additional supplies for the troops marked the start of her career as the Angel of the Battlefield.

July 21, 1861

Battle of First Manassas (Bull Run), Virginia - Miss Barton tended to wounded soldiers as they arrived in Washington, DC. She established a distribution agency after receiving additional supplies sent in response to an advertisement in the Worcester Spy.

Henri Dunant, a Swiss businessman, published an account of the 1859 battle of Solferino in Italy between French and Austrian. In Un Souvenir de Solferino, he outlined a need for wartime relief societies. Clara Barton was unaware of this publication.

March 21, 1862

Clara Barton’s father, Stephen Barton, died in North Oxford, Massachusetts. On his deathbed, he encouraged Clara Barton to continue her patriotic support for the Union.

August 3, 1862

Miss Barton gained official permission to transport supplies to battlefields.

August 9, 1862

Battle of Cedar Mountain (Culpepper), Virginia - This was the first documented battle at which Clara Barton served in the field. Arriving on August 13, she spent two days and nights tending the wounded. Before leaving, she provided assistance at a field hospital for Confederate prisoners.

August 28-30, 1862

Battle of Second Manassas (Bull Run), Virginia.

September 1, 1862

Battle of Chantilly, Virginia - Arriving at Fairfax Station after the Battle of Second Manassas, Miss Barton tended to the wounded and prepared the injured for evacuation by train to Washington, DC.

September 14, 1862

Battle of South Mountain, Maryland - Miss Barton aided the wounded at battles near Harper’s Ferry and South Mountain.

September 17, 1862

Battle of Antietam, Maryland - Miss Barton and her wagons arrived on the field with the Army of the Potomac prior to the battle. She provided surgeons with desperately needed medical supplies. During the battle she was nearly killed when a bullet passed through the sleeve of her dress, killing the wounded man she was attending. Although lacking medical training, at the insistence of a wounded soldier, she extracted a bullet from his cheek, using her pocket knife. Working for several days following the conflict, Miss Barton was weakened by typhoid fever.

Sept. - Nov. 1862

Miss Barton travelled with the Army of the Potomac as it pursued the retreating Confederates into Virginia. She provided aid to the wounded at several minor skirmishes and accompanied patients to hospitals in Washington, DC.

December 13, 1862

Battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia - Miss Barton assisted in a hospital of the IX Corps, which was established at the Lacy House (Chatham Manor). She remained in the field through most of the month, following the route of the Union Army.

Miss Barton arrived at Hilton Head, South Carolina, in preparation for the anticipated bombardment of Charleston. She joined Captain David Barton, her brother and an Army Quartermaster, and Steven E. Barton, her fifteen year old nephew who was serving in the military telegraph office. She met and befriended Colonel John J. Elwell.

Miss Barton met Frances D. Gage, together they worked to educate former slaves and prepare them for their life beyond slavery. Miss Barton developed an interest in the growing movement for equal rights among women and African Americans.

August 10 - 11, 1863

Siege of Ft. Wagner, South Carolina - Miss Barton helped to establish field hospitals and distributed supplies following the failed assaults.

January - May, 1864

Miss Barton returned to Washington, DC, to collect supplies and to recuperate.

Battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House near Fredericksburg, Virginia - Miss Barton arranged for the opening of private homes for the care of wounded with the assistance of Senator Henry Wilson, chairman of the Military Affairs Committee.

Fredericksburg continued to be an important hospital and logistical center for the Union Army, as wounded poured in from the overland campaigns advancing upon Richmond.

June 23, 1864

Miss Barton is placed in charge of diet and nursing at a X Corps hospital near Point of Rocks, Virginia, appointed by Army of the James Commander Major General Benjamin F. Butler. The "flying hospital" served the wounded from the almost daily fighting outside Petersburg.

August 1864

The first Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded in Armies in the Field is held in Geneva, Switzerland. The International Committee of the Red Cross was established. Clara Barton is unaware of this event and the United States does not join the organization.

January - March 10, 1865

Miss Barton cared for her dying brother, Stephen Barton.

With the assistance of Senator Wilson, Miss Barton won the approval of President Abraham Lincoln to address the problem of large numbers of missing soldiers. By authority of the President, she established The Office of Correspondence with Friends of the Missing Men of the United States Army on March 11. Recognition by the War Department followed two months later. She directed a four-year search for missing men.

April 9, 1865

Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, signalling the end of the Civil War.

Summer 1865

Andersonville, Georgia - Aided largely by records kept by prison survivor Dorance Atwater, Miss Barton assisted in the locating and marking of nearly 13,000 Union graves. She raised the US flag at the dedication of Andersonville National Cemetery on August 17, 1865.

February 21, 1866

March 10, 1866

Congress appropriated $15,000 to reimburse Miss Barton for expenses associated with her search for missing men.

Miss Barton delivered over 200 lectures throughout the northeast and midwest regarding her Civil War experiences. She shared platforms with other prominent figures including Frederick Douglass, Ralph Waldo Emerson, William Lloyd Garrison, and Mark Twain. She often earned $75 to $100 per lecture.

November 30, 1867

Miss Barton met Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. The resulting friendships aligned Miss Barton with the suffrage movement.

December 1868

Miss Barton lost her voice while delivering a speech from fatigue and mental prostration.

Miss Barton closed The Office of Correspondence with Friends of the Missing Men of the United States Army, having received and answered 63,182 letters and identified 22,000 missing men.

September 1869

On the advice of her doctor, Miss Barton travelled to Europe to regain her health. While visiting Switzerland, she met Dr. Louis Appia, and, for the first time, read about the International Red Cross.

Canadian Independence Day

The autonomous Dominion of Canada, a confederation of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the future provinces of Ontario and Quebec, is officially recognized by Great Britain with the passage of the British North America Act. July 1 will later become known as Canada Day.

During the 19th century, colonial dependence gave way to increasing autonomy for a growing Canada. In 1841, Upper and Lower Canada—now known as Ontario and Quebec—were made a single province by the Act of Union. In the 1860s, a movement for a greater Canadian federation grew out of the need for a common defense, the desire for a national railroad system, and the necessity of finding a solution to the problem of French and British conflict. When the Maritime provinces, which sought union among themselves, called a conference in 1864, delegates from the other provinces of Canada attended. Later in the year, another conference was held in Quebec, and in 1866 Canadian representatives traveled to London to meet with the British government.

On July 1, 1867, with passage of the British North America Act, the Dominion of Canada was officially established as a self-governing entity within the British Empire. Two years later, Canada acquired the vast possessions of the Hudson’s Bay Company, and within a decade the provinces of Manitoba and Prince Edward Island had joined the Canadian federation. In 1885, the Canadian Pacific Railway was completed, making mass settlement across the vast territory of Canada possible.

Thursday, July 20, 2017

Erzählungen aus der hessischen Kriegs-Geschichte 2

Die Truppenrevuen Friedrich des Großen

Legends of America

Sioux Warriors by James Ayers

First Sioux War – 1854-1855

Battle of Redwood Ferry – August 18, 1862, Minnesota

Battle of Lower Sioux Agency – August 18, 1862, Minnesota

Battle of New Ulm – August 19-23, 1862, Minnesota

Battle of Big Mound – July 24-25, 1863, North Dakota

Battle of Dead Buffalo Lake – July 26, 1863, North Dakota

Battle of Stony Lake – July 28, 1863, North Dakota

Battle of Whitestone Hill – September 3-5, 1863, North Dakota

Battle of Killdeer Mountain – July 28-29, 1864, North Dakota

American Ranch Massacre – January 14, 1865, Colorado

Battle of the Badlands August 7, 1864

Powder River War – July 1-October 4, 1865, Wyoming and Montana

Powder River Battles – September 1–15, 1865, Montana

Battle of Honsinger Bluff – August 4, 1873, Montana

Battle of Pease Bottom – August 11, 1873, Montana

Fetterman Massacre, Wyoming – December 21, 1866

Great Sioux War – 1876-1877, Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, South Dakota

Battle of Prairie Dog Creek – June 9, 1876, Wyoming

Battle of Cedar Creek – October 21, 1876, Montana

Sioux Indians on Horseback, by Heyn, 1899

The Sioux Wars were a series of conflicts between the United States and various bands of the Sioux people which occurred in the latter half of the 19th century.

Sioux warriors assisted the British during the American Revolution as well as the War of 1812 and made their first treaty with the United States in 1815. Numerous treaties would follow, giving the tribe control of a vast region that encompassed much of what is today Missouri, Iowa, Wyoming, the Dakotas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Over the years, their landholdings would be reduced by more treaties.

The earliest conflict came in 1854 when a fight broke out near Fort Laramie, Wyoming. Attacks and counterattacks followed for the next several decades as white settlers pushed westward and encroached westward upon Sioux lands. The fighting wouldn’t end until the final incident in 1890 during the Ghost Dance War.

There was a time when the land was sacred,
and the ancient ones were as one with it.
A time when only the children of the Great Spirit
were here to light their fires in these places with no boundaries…
In that time, when there were only simple ways,
I saw with my heart the conflicts to come,
and whether it was to be for good or bad,
what was certain was that there would be change.

-The Great Spirit

The siege of New Ulm, Minnesota by Henry A. Schwabe

“This war did not spring up on our land, this war was brought upon us by the children of the Great Father who came to take our land without a price, and who, in our land, do a great many evil things… This war has come from robbery – from the stealing of our land.” – Spotted Tail

Battle of the Little Bighorn by C.M. Russell

“One does not sell the land people walk on.” – Crazy Horse, September 23, 1875

Legends of America

Crazy Woman Creek, Wyoming

The Battle of Crazy Woman Creek in Wyoming on July 20, 1866, was another clash with Indians who were resisting travel on the Bozeman Trail during Red Cloud’s War.

The battle began when Sioux and Cheyenne warriors attacked a small wagon train at the trail crossing of the Crazy Woman Fork of Powder River. Escorted by Lieutenant George M. Templeton and a detachment of 29 soldiers, the train was heading north to Fort Phil Kearny. The party passed by Fort Reno before following Dry Creek to its junction with Crazy Woman Creek.

Scouting ahead, Lieutenants Templeton and Napoleon H. Daniels were attacked by more than 50 warriors. Daniels was killed and Templeton took an arrow in his back and was wounded in the face. However, he was able to make it back to the wagon train, which he ordered corralled.

The situation was desperate, as of the 37 people in the party, nine were women and children and only ten of the 19 enlisted soldiers had guns. A battle raged from early afternoon through sundown, at which time the soldiers were getting low on ammunition. Two men including a soldier and the Chaplain Reverend David White volunteered to ride back to Fort Reno for help. However, before they were on their way, another larger wagon train came along the scene. Comprised of 34 wagons and 47 men, under Captain Thomas B. Burrowes, they approached from the northwest on its way to Fort Reno.

Burrowes quickly took command of both parties and the Indians left the area. One of Burrowes’ men, Private Terrence Callery, who had been hunting ahead of the wagon train was killed. The next morning the soldiers found the body of Lieutenant Daniels stripped, scalped, and pierced with 22 arrows. Both wagon trains then returned to Fort Reno.

Today, a stone monument and several interpretive signs stand near the battlefield, which is located near Buffalo, Wyoming.

Johnson’s Plan

While Andrew Johnson favored punishment for Confederates after the Civil War, his policies toward the South softened during his presidency.

Learning Objectives

Evaluate President Johnson’s approach to Reconstruction

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • The Black Codes were laws passed in the Southern states in the aftermath of the Civil War. They lowered the status of freedmen.
  • The Confiscation Acts were passed by Congress in 1861 and 1862. They allowed for the confiscation of land owned by Confederates, and for this land to be redistributed to freedmen. Johnson ordered that the land be given back to the pardoned owners instead.
  • The Freedmen’s Bureau administered basic relief to newly freed slaves and poor whites, including the provision of food and medicine, as well as limited legal and employment aid.
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1866 gave freedmen full legal equality, with the exception of the right to vote. It was vetoed by Johnson, but his veto was overridden by Congress.
  • The Joint Committee on Reconstruction was a 15-member panel created to devise Reconstruction requirements for Southern states to be restored to the Union.
  • The Fourteenth Amendment was designed to put the key provisions of the Civil Rights Act into the Constitution, but it went much further. It extended citizenship to everyone born in the United States except visitors and American Indians. It penalized states that did not give the vote to freedmen and created new federal civil rights that could be protected by federal courts.

Key Terms

  • black codes: Laws passed after the Civil War that limited the basic human rights and civil liberties of blacks.
  • Andrew Johnson: The seventeenth president of the United States. He became president after Lincoln’s assassination and battled with the Radical Republicans in Congress over control and stringency of the Reconstruction. He was eventually impeached ostensibly for violating the Tenure of Office Act and was acquitted by one vote.
  • Lyman Trumbull: A U.S. Senator from Illinois during the American Civil War and coauthor of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

Johnson’s Battle with Congress

Both Northern anger over the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln as well as the immense cost of human life during the Civil War led to vengeful demands for harsh policies in the South. Initially, Vice President Andrew Johnson spoke of hanging rebel Confederates. When he became president, however, Johnson took a much softer line and pardoned many of them. Additionally, no trials for treason took place. Only Captain Henry Wirz, commandant of the prison camp in Andersonville, Georgia, was executed for war crimes.

Johnson’s soft stance on Southern states can be understood by examining some of his viewpoints. First, he sought a speedy restoration of the states, on the grounds that they had never truly left the Union, and thus should again be recognized once loyal citizens formed a government. Unlike Radical Republicans, Johnson did not seek to make Southerners accountable for the war, but instead wanted to reintegrate them as easily as possible. Despite some of his rhetoric during his vice presidency, his actions as president reveal that he was not concerned with punishing the South. Second, to Johnson, African-American suffrage was a delay and a distraction it always had been a state responsibility to decide who should vote. Without a focus on providing explicit legal equality for the freed slaves, Johnson overlooked the actions of white Southerners and blocked the actions of Congress. Many of the Radical Republicans’ efforts were to pass laws granting freedmen more political equality, so compared to Congress, Johnson indeed could be considered lenient on the South. Johnson’s conservative view of Reconstruction did not include the involvement of former slaves in government, and he refused to heed Northern concerns when Southern state legislatures implemented Black Codes, laws that limited the basic human rights and civil liberties of blacks. Johnson’s presidency, therefore, would be known primarily for its lax enforcement, and at times defiance, of Reconstruction laws passed by Congress.

Despite the abolition of slavery, many former Confederates were not willing to accept the social changes. The fears of the mostly conservative planter elite and other prominent white citizens, however, were partly assuaged by Johnson’s assurance that wholesale land redistribution from the planters to the freedmen would not occur. Johnson ordered that land forfeited under the Confiscation Acts of 1861 and 1862, which were passed by Congress and administered by the Freedmen’s Bureau, would not be redistributed to the freedmen, but instead returned to pardoned owners.

Freedmen and the Enactment of Black Codes

Southern state governments quickly enacted the restrictive Black Codes. The Black Codes indicated that the freedmen would have more rights than they had before the war, but still only a limited set of second-class civil rights. Additionally, freedmen were not granted voting rights or citizenship The Black Codes outraged Northerners, and were overthrown by the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which gave freedmen full legal equality (except the right to vote).

This helped freedmen force planters to bargain for their labor. Such bargaining soon led to the practice of sharecropping, which gave the freedmen both greater economic independence and social autonomy. However, because freedmen lacked capital, and because planters continued to own the tools, draft animals, and land, the freedmen were forced into producing cash crops, mainly cotton, for the landowners and merchants. Widespread poverty, as well as the falling price of cotton, led to indebtedness among a majority of the freedmen, and poverty among many planters.

Northern officials gave varying reports on conditions involving freedmen in the South. One harsh assessment came from Carl Schurz, who documented dozens of extra-judicial killings in states along the Gulf Coast. He also reported that at least hundreds, perhaps thousands, of other African Americans had been killed in this area. In Selma, Alabama, Major J.P. Houston noted that whites who killed 12 African Americans in his district never came to trial. Several other killings never culminated in official cases.

Black women were particularly vulnerable at this time, as convicting a white man of sexually assaulting a black woman was immensely difficult. Because black women were considered to have little virtue, some in white society held that they could not be raped. This racist mindset contributed to numerous sexual crimes against black women. Black men were construed as being extremely sexually aggressive, and their supposed threats to white women often were used as a pretext for lynching and castrations.

Moderate Responses

During the autumn of 1865, the Radical Republicans responded to the implementation of the Black Codes by blocking the readmission of the former rebellious states to Congress. Johnson, however, pushed to allow former Confederate states into the Union as long as their state governments adopted the Thirteenth Amendment (which abolished slavery). The amendment was ratified by December 6, 1865, leading Johnson to believe that Reconstruction was over.

The Radical-controlled Congress, however, rejected Johnson’s moderate presidential Reconstruction, and organized the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, a 15-member panel that devised Reconstruction requirements for the Southern states to be restored to the Union.

Johnson vetoed the renewal of the Freedmen’s Bureau Bill in February 1866. Although Johnson had sympathies for the plights of the freedmen, he was opposed to federal assistance. An attempt to override the veto failed on February 20, 1866. In response, both the Senate and House passed a joint resolution, disallowing any congressional seat admittance until Congress declared Reconstruction finished.

Illinois senator Lyman Trumbull, leader of the moderate Republicans, recognized that the abolition of slavery was worthless without the protection of basic civil rights, and thus proposed the first Civil Rights Law. Congress quickly passed this Civil Rights bill.

Johnson’s Impeachment

Andrew Johnson: President Andrew Johnson

The impeachment of Andrew Johnson was one of the most dramatic events that occurred during the Reconstruction era in the United States, and was the first impeachment in history of a sitting U.S. president. Johnson was impeached because of his efforts to undermine congressional policy the impeachment was the culmination of a lengthy political battle between the moderate Johnson and the Radical Republicans who dominated Congress and sought control of Reconstruction policies. Johnson was acquitted by one vote.

Johnson was impeached on February 24, 1868, in the U.S. House of Representatives on 11 articles of impeachment detailing his “high crimes and misdemeanors.” The House’s primary charge against Johnson was with violation of the Tenure of Office Act, passed by Congress the previous year. Specifically, he had removed Edwin M. Stanton, the secretary of war (whom the Tenure of Office Act was largely designed to protect), from office and attempted to replace him with Brevet Major General Lorenzo Thomas.

The House agreed to the articles of impeachment on March 2, 1868. The trial began three days later in the Senate, with Chief Justice of the United States Salmon P. Chase presiding. The first vote on one of the 11 impeachment articles concluded on May 16 with a failure to convict Johnson. A 10-day recess was called before attempting to convict him on additional articles, but that effort failed on May 26. The 35-to-19 votes were one short of the required two-thirds needed for conviction.

13th Artillery Regiment (Heavy)

Mustered in by companies: August 4,1863 to June 11,1864.
Men whose service would expire before October 1, 1865, mustered out: June 28, 1865.
Remaining men transferred to the 6th regiment of artillery.

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.

Colonel Wm. A. Howard received authority, May 11, 1863, to organize this regiment in New York city. July 29, 1863, men enlisted for the 11th Artillery (and not assigned to companies) were transferred to this and October 14, 1863, the men enlisted for the 29th Infantry Volunteers, reorganizing, and the 36th Battery, not completed, were also assigned to this regiment, January 22, 1864, the men enlisted by Jesse B. Lamb for the 14th Artillery were assigned to this regiment. The companies were mustered in the service of the United States for three years: at Staten Island A, B and C August 12 and 29 and September 11, 1863, respectively at Elmira D August 4, 1863 at Fort Schuyler E March 10, 1864, F in February, 1864, G and H March 14 and 18, 1864, respectively at New York city I November 10, 1863 at Riker's island K February 21, 1864 at Norfolk, Va., L June 11, 1864, and M in December, 1863. There were, however, quite a number of one year's men in the regiment.

The companies were recruited principally: A at New York city, Albany, Buffalo and Watertown B at New York city, Buffalo, Salamanca, Seneca and Watertown C at New York city, Albany, Ellicottsville, Farmersville, Perrysburg and Watertown D at Wells-ville, Cuba, Rushford, Candor, Elmira, Belfast and Greenwood E at Schenectady, Ephratah, Providence, Clifton Park, Galway, Oppenheim, Amsterdam, Saratoga, Ballston, Johnstown, New Albion, Glenville, Waterford,, Randolph, Albany and Tompkins F at Ballston, Charlton, Florida, Charleston, Broadalbin, Stillwater, Milton, Clifton Park, Palatine, Root, Malta, Johnstown, Cherry Creek, Waterford, Halfmoon, Providence and Duanesburgh G and H at Caledonia, Pamelia, Paris, Starkey, Utica, Johnstown, Potsdam, Chateaugay, Malone, Mayfield, Belmont, Pinckney, Fairfield, Danube, Mexico, Con-stantia, Mooers and Syracuse (Company H was originally intended for the 14th N. Y. Volunteer Artillery) I at New York city, Albany, Buffalo, Mamaroneck and Watertown K at New York city L at New York city and Buffalo and M at New York city, Brook-lyn, Buffalo, Ballston, Broadalbin, Goshen, Halfmoon, Hanover, Johnstown, Pittstown, Plainfield and Waterford.

The regiment left the State in detachments, the 1st Battalion, Companies A, B, C and D, leaving October 5, 1863 it served as infantry and heavy artillery in the Departments of the East, until it left the State and of Virginia and North Carolina the 1st and 2d Battalions in the defenses of Norfolk and Portsmouth, Va., and Newbern, N. C. the 3d Battalion as a coastguard on board vessels of war along the Atlantic coast. Company C served at Fort Hamilton, New York harbor, from September 12, 1863, to October 5, 1863 Companies A and H as siege artillery in the 3d Division, 18th Corps, Army of the James, from May, 1864, at, and in the forces for the defense of, Bermuda Hundred, Va., from January 1865 Companies I, K, L and M in the Naval Brigade, Army of the James, from July, 1864.

June 28, 1865, Companies I, K, L and M, and the men of the other companies, whose term of service would expire before October I, 1865, were, under the command of Colonel Howard, honorably discharged and mustered out, the companies named at Norfolk, Va. the men remaining in service were transferred, June 27, 1865, those of Company E to Companies B, C and G of F to Companies A, C and D and of H to Companies A and B, leaving in existence five companies, A, B, C, D and G, which were, July 18, 1865, transferred to the 6th N. Y. Volunteer Artillery, second organization, as Companies H, I, K, L and M, respectively.

The regiment lost in the service by death, killed in action, 1 officer, 2 enlisted men of wounds received in action, 2 enlisted men of disease and other causes, 3 officers, 144 enlisted men total, 4 officer, 148 enlisted men aggregate, 152.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers, Volume II: New York, Maryland, West Virginia and Ohio. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908.

Thirteenth Artillery (Heavy).&mdashCol., William A. Howard Lieut.-Col., James J. Walsh Majs., Oliver Wetmore, Jr., Ferdinand R. Hassler, Robert W. McLaughlin. This regiment was recruited from the state at large and organized at New York city, the various companies being mustered into the U. S. service for three years as follows: A, B and C at Staten island on Aug. 12 and 29, and Sept. 11, 1863 D at Elmira on Aug. 4, 1863 E, F, G and H at Fort Schuyler in Feb. and March, 1864 I at New York city, Nov. 10, 1863 K at Riker's island, Feb. 21, 1864 L at Norfolk, Va., June 11, 1864 and M in Dec. 1863. The men enlisted by Maj. H. B. Williams for the nth N. Y. artillery were transferred to this regiment on July 29, 1863, as were also the men enlisted for the 29th N. Y. veteran infantry, and the members of the incomplete 36th independent N. Y. battery, in October. The regiment left the state by detachments, the 1st battalion, Cos. A, B, C and D, leaving on Oct. 5, 1863, and with the 2nd battalion garrisoned the defenses of Norfolk and Portsmouth, Va., and New Berne, N. C. From May, 1864, Cos. A and H served as siege artillery in the 3d division, i8th corps, Army of the James, forming part of the forces for the defense of Bermuda Hundred. The 3d battalion of the regiment, under command of Maj. Robert W. McLaughlin, consisting of Cos. I, K, L and M, and numbering about 500 men, after serving as a coast-guard on board vessels of war along the Atlantic coast, formed the celebrated naval brigade. Army of the James, from July, 1864. The battalion was made up of sailors enlisted for service on the light-draft gunboats built by Norman Wiard to penetrate otherwise inaccessible places. Portions of the regiment took part in engagements in the operations against Petersburg and Richmond Swift creek, N. C Day's Point, Va. Fort Fisher, N. C and the fall of Petersburg. Its losses during service were 3 killed and 12 wounded, 2 of the latter mortally 3 officers and 144 men died of disease and other causes total, 152. The only officer killed was Capt. John A. Gordon, who lost his life in the action at Swift creek. Cos. I, K, L and M, and the men of the other companies whose terms would expire Oct. i, 1865, were mustered out, under Col. Howard, June 28, 1865 those remaining in service were consolidated into a battalion of five companies and transferred to the 6th N. Y. artillery. Lieut. J. L. De Peyster raised the first flag over Richmond when the city surrendered in 1865.

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