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Maritime archaeologists have made an astonishing discovery off the Kent coast in England. While investigating an almost three-hundred-year-old shipwreck they found some coins that had been sewn into clothing. This is the second important maritime archaeological find in Kent, recently. A Tudor ship was also found on some mudflats in Tankerton Beach some weeks ago. The latest discovery is one that is exciting experts and offering an insight into the lives of ordinary people in the 18 th century, demonstrating the rich maritime heritage of Kent.
The find was made near the wreck of the Rooswijk on the bed of the English Channel. Both the crew and the ship descended to the bottom of the sea off the coast of Kent, sinking after striking a notorious sandbank, Goodwin Sands, that the BBC reports it is known as ‘the great ship swallower’. The Rooswijk sank in the winter of 1740 and all its 237 passengers and crew were lost. The ship's cargo of silver bullion, iron, and cut stones, that was destined for the East Indies, was also lost.
Diver at the Rooswijk excavation site. (Image: © Historic England/RCE )
Experts know a lot more about this ship than the remains of the Tudor vessel found at Tankerton Beach. The ship belonged to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) that controlled much of modern Indonesia at this time. It set off with a cargo of silver to purchase spices and other luxury goods in Batavia, the capital of the Dutch East Indies. The ship was skippered by Daniël Ronzieres and was crewed by Dutch, German and Swedish sailors, some of whom have been identified through the VOC archives in Amsterdam.
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Rooswijk by Ralph Curnow. (Image: Artists in Cornwall )
A profitable exchange
Maritime archaeologists, members of the Rooswijk1740 project, discovered a haul of silver coins some 85 feet down on the seabed. Many of the silver coins had holes drilled so that they could be sewn into clothing. There were not only Dutch coins but also ducats from the Spanish Netherlands. But why were they secreted in clothing in this manner? The answer would seem to be that these monies would have been prohibited from being taken to the Dutch Indies.
The discovery of coins hidden in clothes and also prohibited foreign currency suggests that the crew and passengers were engaged in smuggling to the East Indies. There was a great demand for silver in the colonies and the speculation is that the passengers and mariners were trying to make a profit by selling the silver coins for higher than their face value in Batavia, the capital of the East Indies. The coins were probably sewn into the clothes of those on board to ensure that they were not detected during regular onboard inspections. Historians have long known that there was an illicit trade in silver in the Dutch company’s possessions and believe that up to 50% of the money being transported to the East Indies was smuggled.
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Spanish Piece of Eight, or Spanish Pillar Dollar. ( CC BY-SA 2.5 )
The history unravels piece by piece
Some other artifacts have also been uncovered in the wreck, including a pewter jug. Two small human bones have also been identified and it is believed that there will be more remains found at the site. Personal items have also been uncovered and these include a nit comb and a container for cheese. Several well-preserved boxes and barrels have also been found by marine archaeologists.
The Rooswijki1740 project is a partnership between Historic England and the Netherland’s Cultural Agency. According to the Daily Mail , the leader of the project, Dr. Martijn Manders has said that, 'The Rooswijk is special because it tells us about ordinary people of that time’ The find also helps experts to understand the personal experiences of those who were lost at sea on a January night, almost three centuries ago.
The team from the project have been working on the site since last summer. According to the Daily Mail , ‘the team is working towards the stern of the ship’ and expect more finds. Items and materials recovered from the wreck are being stored at a warehouse in Kent, where they will be preserved and recorded. It is expected that some of the most interesting items will eventually be put on public display in the Netherlands.
An open weekend on 11-12 August in at the Port of Ramsgate, will allow the public to view many of the artifacts excavated this year.
Silver coin from the East Indiaman (VOC) Rooswijk. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )
A thriving black market
The discovery of the coins sewn into clothing confirms that many employees of the VOC were engaged in illegal activities and that it was almost certainly extensive. Just like today, trade in currency could be profitable. The silver coins are also allowing us to understand ordinary people and their experiences almost three hundred years ago. The second important find in Kent, in recent weeks, is demonstrating the rich maritime archaeological heritage of that area of England.
The History of Money
Money, in and of itself, might have actual value it can be a shell, a metal coin, or a piece of paper. Its value depends on the importance that people place on it—as a medium of exchange, a unit of measurement, and a storehouse for wealth.
Money allows people to trade goods and services indirectly, it helps communicate the price of goods (prices written in dollar and cents correspond to a numerical amount in your possession, i.e. in your pocket, purse, or wallet), and it provides individuals with a way to store their wealth in the long-term.
- Money conveys the importance that people place on it.
- Money allows people to trade goods and services indirectly, communicate the price of goods, and it provides individuals with a way to store their wealth over the long-term.
- Before money, people acquired and exchanged goods through a system of bartering, which involves the direct trade of goods and services.
- The first region of the world to use an industrial facility to manufacture coins that could be used as currency was in Europe, in the region called Lydia (modern-day Western Turkey), in approximately 600 B.C.
- The Chinese were the first to devise a system of paper money, in approximately 770 B.C.
Money is valuable merely because everyone knows that it will be accepted as a form of payment. However, throughout history, both the usage and the form of money have evolved.
While most of the time, the terms "money" and "currency" are used interchangeably, there are several theories that suggest that these terms are not identical. According to some theories, money is inherently an intangible concept, while currency is the physical (tangible) manifestation of the intangible concept of money.
By extension, according to this theory, money cannot be touched or smelled. Currency is the coin, note, object, etc. that is presented in the form of money. The basic form of money is numbers today, the basic form of currency is paper notes, coins, or plastic cards (e.g. credit or debit cards). While this distinction between money and currency is important in some contexts, for the purposes of this article, the terms are used interchangeably.
Understanding the History of Money
Since the advent of NAFTA in 1994, relations between Chihuahuan management and labor have been strained. Union membership has declined, and much of the state’s labor force has resisted the implementation of the agreement. Nevertheless, Chihuahua continues to have one of the fastest-growing economies in Mexico.
Today, the primary economic drivers in the state are assembly plants (called maquiladoras) that produce electronic components, automobile parts and textile goods. Manufacturers such as Toshiba, JVC and Honeywell have facilities in the state’s recently developed industrial parks.
Timber production and livestock ranching in Chihuahua were once staples of the economy however, as of 2003, they represented less than 10 percent of the total economic activity.
Where to celebrate Juneteenth in San Antonio
SAN ANTONIO – This year marks the 156th anniversary of Juneteenth, the day enslaved Texans were officially proclaimed free, two-and-a-half years after the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863.
While the announcement on June 19, 1895, in Galveston, Texas, ostensibly set free enslaved African-Americans in this state, the holiday is largely celebrated across the country as the official end of slavery in the United States.
Also known as African-American Independence Day, Juneteenth has grown in official recognition and is now recognized in nearly all 50 states, including Texas.
Here are some events in San Antonio where you can celebrate the holiday:
Juneteenth Pop-up Shop hosted by MAAT Market
Celebrate Juneteenth with a pop-up shop! This pop-up market will be a culmination of African-American culture and African-rooted activities. From African drumming, clothes, gifts, and natural care products to a reading and Juneteenth discussion, this event will have it all. This pop-up shop will be on Saturday, June 19 at “Our Place,” 3455 Martin Luther King Dr. from 12 to 5 p.m.
Night with the Missions Juneteenth Fundraiser
This fundraiser baseball game between the San Antonio Missions and NW Arkansas Naturals will celebrate African Americans in the history of baseball. VIP ticket sales for the fundraiser benefit the Texas Kidney Foundation and San Antonio African American Community Archive and Museum. One VIP ticket includes food, meet-and-greet with players, The Invisible Diamond exhibit and a South Texas Negro League silent auction. To tie it all in for a finale, it ends with fireworks. The event will be Saturday, June 19 at Nelson W. Wolff Municipal Stadium from 7 to 10 p.m.
Annual Juneteenth Festival
The official Juneteenth commissioner Byron E. Miller will host the eighth annual San Antonio Juneteenth festival Friday, June 18 through Saturday, June 19 at Comanche Park. The event will feature live music from Ruben-V and Kenne Wayne and two main events for each day. Friday’s main event will be a Flotilla Fish Fry and Saturday will be a health fair. Attendees can also look forward to open mic, gospel group performances, domino and kick ball tournaments and basketball. This Juneteenth celebration runs from 11 a.m. to 11 p.m. on Friday and Saturday.
Black History River Cruise
Enjoy a ride along the river and learn about Black history and impactful figures in San Antonio. This event will be hosted by SAAACAM on June 18 from 7 to 9 p.m. It will start at SAAACAM La Villita and go from there. Read more about the cruise here.
Juneteenth Block Party
This event is very new. It was inspired from conversations started last year during the conflicts for racial justice. This block party and fair will focus on resources and opportunities related to education, business and health that the Black community may find useful. This block party will be at Alamo Beer on Saturday, June 19, from 3 to 9 p.m. The event is free, but tickets must be reserved on the event website.
Black Freedom Factory presents The Future is Freedom: Juneteenth Celebration at Hopscotch
This event will be at the Hopscotch museum and combine fun, health and education into one celebration. The Future is Freedom will celebrate not only the past, but the present and future of freedom as well. You will be able to enjoy live music, food, vendors, poetry and an interactive museum. There will be performances and speeches by Sacred fantasy, Shokare Nakpodia, Kimiya Denise, Alan Borris, Band Mc2 and DJ Mr.G. Food and drinks will be provided by Tony G’s Soul Food and Chef Robbie Rodgers. It all goes down at Hopscotch San Antonio on Thursday, June 17. The event will run from 6:30 to 10 p.m. Tickets range from $15 to $50.
Juneteenth at Legacy Park
Get ready for an evening of arts and performances from appearances like Buffalo Soldiers, DJ Jevonchi and Fiesta Royalty. Experience this art in Legacy Park on Saturday, June 19 from 6 to 10 p.m.
Discussion and Walk on the River Movie Screening at the Alamo
There will be a Juneteenth discussion with Dr. Carey Latimore, associate professor of history at Trinity University, followed by a screening of the movie Walk on the River: A Black History of the Alamo City in the Alamo Gardens on Friday June 18 from 7:30 to 9:30 p.m.
We’d love to hear how you plan to celebrate and what Juneteenth means to you. Let us know here.
$1 BILLION TREASURE HUNT
JAMA, Ecuador -- Haig Jacobs emerges from the Pacific waters and punches a triumphant fist skyward.
"It's gold, fellows! It's pure gold!" he shouts to fellow treasure hunters aboard the salvage boat Nautilus.
Then he opens his palm, revealing a lump of mud hiding a spool of pure gold thread -- more evidence the team has discovered the 400-year-old hiding place of a sunken, treasure-filled Spanish galleon.
Led by Joel Ruth of Brevard County, Los Caballeros Aventureros -- The Gentlemen Adventurers, loosely translated -- have wrested enough galleon remnants to bolster their dreams of making the find of a lifetime beneath the sands and volcanic mud off Ecuador's north coast, 13 miles from the equator.
The Nuestra Senora de la Magdalena (Our Lady of Magdalene) sank about a mile off the Jama River in 1612, where the sea's treacherous shoals swallowed the ship. In the hold was a king's ransom of gold, silver and gems. Centuries-old ship manifests stored in Seville, Spain, value the treasure at more than $1 billion.
Ruth's team thinks it can do what King Philip III of Spain and treasure hunters through the centuries couldn't: exhume the Magdalena's cargo from its watery grave.
If they're right, it would be the largest Spanish galleon ever found, topping Mel Fisher's 1985 discovery off Key West of the Atocha. And because the Magdalena sank in mud, ship timber, guns with wooden stalks and other fine artifacts are probably better-preserved than those of other recovered galleons.
Ruth has risked everything -- money, health and his reputation -- to get this far.
But he still cannot be certain he will find the Magdalena's treasury and its abundant wealth or whether years of effort will yield only a few gold trinkets from a ship too ravaged by the sea to bestow its full bounty.
It was on a recent September morning after 11 straight days of diving from the 52-foot salvage vessel that Jacobs made his discovery, handing his diver's bag loaded with mud-encrusted silver knives to Capt. Keith Plaskett.
Jacobs also held the pure-gold thread, once destined to be sewn into the capes and clothes of the Old World's aristocrats and royalty, and which was wound around a silver bobbin.
"Is that all?" Ruth, 54, deadpanned. His hunt for this treasure has lasted four years, and the latest recovery isn't much better than what his team brought up on earlier dives.
"It's here," the marine archaeologist and coin expert muttered. "It might be scattered a mile, but it's here."
Ruth's quest began when a treasure-hunting friend showed him a perplexing, hand-drawn and water-stained map about a decade ago.
"On this shoal of the R. Jama was cast away. . . . In the year 1612. In her was an abundance of plate and other treasure," it read.
The ancient map didn't name a country or ship. But it did indicate a vessel was wrecked near the oddly named Ensenada Borrachos, or Bay of Drunkards, and a mountain called Coaque (pronounced KWACK-eh).
Ruth, a full-time treasure hunter for more than a decade, was intrigued. He recognized R. Jama as the River Jama in Ecuador, where he had been working for other salvors off and on since the late 1990s. Ruth, who has degrees in history and economics from Florida Atlantic University and Rollins College, knows by heart the routes the Spanish treasure fleets took along the Pacific.
Ruth squirreled away the map, hoping one day it would lead him to his dream.
Then in the late summer of 2003 as he was scouting the shore in a remote part of Ecuador, Ruth hiked up a 200-foot bluff, scanned the early-morning landscape and noted its odd bumps.
The hair on the back of his neck rose.
"I thought, 'There it is. Those hills . . . are these here on the map,' " he said. "It was like someone speaking to me through the centuries."
Ruth realized he had found the sunken ship's location. But not every ship is worth scavenging. Some didn't carry valuables others held vast wealth. The challenge was to figure out this ship's name to learn of its cargo.
Only one man would know the answer.
Like other treasure hunters, the world's foremost living galleon expert, Sir Robert Marx, guards his secrets.
The aging, salty-tongued adventurer and author of more than 60 books lives not far from Ruth's Indialantic home in Brevard County.
When Ruth told Marx what he had discovered, "He said, 'You [expletive],' " Ruth recalled. " 'I've always wanted to go after that ship but never got the chance.' "
Marx, whose recovered treasures have been sold by the world's great auction houses, had found records of the ship in the archives in Seville, where he spent six years doing research.
Marx accepted that he never would be able to hunt for the ship himself. But for 110 pieces of eight -- coins worth several thousand dollars to collectors -- he would give Ruth the answer he sought.
"I'm old," Marx explained. "There's no more waiting. I want to see this found."
The men cut their deal, and as Marx spoke, Ruth held his breath.
The ship was the Magdalena, the second of a three-ship convoy that carried 18 million pesos -- or $1.5 billion -- in silver and other treasure.
Built of tropical hardwoods in Spain's New World shipyards, it was heavily armed with 68 bronze cannons and would have had a contingent of soldiers armed with matchlock rifles, long pikes and swords.
The treasure ship annually cruised along the Pacific coast to ferry silver, gold, gems and other valuables from mines in Lima, Peru Potosi, Bolivia and other places.
The treasure was then taken north to Spain's stronghold on the Isthmus of Panama, where it was unloaded, hauled to the Atlantic coast and placed aboard ships headed to Spain.
In order to avoid the Dutch pirates who lay in wait for the ships, convoys split up. But the Magdalena ventured too close to shore, listing on the shoals and shifting its 800-ton cargo. Under its own weight, its hull cracked like an egg -- and survivors, if any, would have faced a months-long walk to the nearest Spanish settlement.
Ruth realized the significance of Marx's revelation. The ship, unlike the typical galleon carrying timber, spices and agricultural goods along the Atlantic route, was a floating treasure chest.
Ancient records showed three salvage attempts had failed, resulting in only two cannons being raised.
This was the opportunity Ruth had a dreamed about since growing up on the Space Coast, fascinated by history while his friends wanted to be astronauts. Such a discovery would top anything he had ever done: working on the Atocha recovery with Mel Fisher and even finding three English merchant ships off Haiti.
And he had a feeling it would be bigger than Santa Maria de la Consolacion off Santa Clara Island in Ecuador, which is yielding troves of silver treasure thanks to Ruth's success in locating the vessel for his employers.
Ruth was ready to pursue the biggest discovery of his career.
In midsummer 2003, Ruth began to assemble a treasure-hunting team. He needed reliable workers who wouldn't betray his secret. And he needed money.
Treasure hunting costs about $20,000 a month.
Financial backing came from two Brevard County friends: Lou Ullian, one of the founders of the famous Real Eight Co., the divers who first found treasure from the Spanish shipwrecks of the 1715 fleet and Ed O'Connor, a retired Air Force colonel and a reconnaissance expert.
For a diver, Ruth turned to former Orlando and Key West resident Jacobs, 38, whom he knew from treasure-diving days with Fisher in Florida.
He hired an electronics expert to run equipment, more divers and a series of ship captains. Some are still working with him Ruth fired others he grew to distrust. In 2005, he hired his current captain, Keith Plaskett, a former Navy diver and security expert.
But sailing over ancient sunken treasure requires 21st-century negotiation and paperwork.
He laid out thousands of dollars for a salvor's permit that guarantees his rights to the area and agreed -- as is customary -- to share half of his find with the Ecuadorean government, which will display recovered artifacts in a national museum. The bureaucratic hassles and getting equipment through customs took months.
He set up shop in Matal, a poor fishing town so off the beaten track that it isn't on most maps.
About 200 residents live in bamboo huts with thatched roofs. Most make their living off the sea, using gill nets to catch wahoo and Patagonian toothfish. Some still use dugout canoes.
They sell the fish that would be worth a small fortune in a big city for just pennies. The high-stakes weekend event is rooster fights that net winning gamblers $5 or $10.
There are no police, giving almost free rein to small-time crooks and drug runners.
Capt. Plaskett kept onboard an old shotgun with bullets that can pierce an engine block.
"I expect when word gets out, people will think we keep the treasure here," Plaskett said.
Any treasure will be kept in a government vault. The team stored dive gear, food, water, guns and high-tech metal detectors in a padlocked safe house hidden behind iron gates. Organizing the operation was like "setting up a climb to Mount Everest with the mob," Ruth said.
By October 2003, his team was in place and ready to make its first foray into the sea.
The work started slowly. Team members spent months dragging metal detectors over the water, a task rather like mowing a 100-mile swath of ocean -- over and over. The aim was to plot where the ship and its contents were buried beneath at least 5 to 12 feet of mud. The signals spread over a square mile.
Ruth zeroed in on some of the largest hits but needed to make some dives, which required more equipment and also more government permits and red tape.
He shelled out thousands of dollars for a government archaeologist to observe the work, and for Ecuadorean navy divers (Hombres Rana, or frogmen) who provide security and ensure whatever is found gets put under lock and key.
It wasn't until January 2005 that Ruth and his team were ready to dive.
They used machines to blow trenches in the mud. But muddy clouds made it so dark that divers had to feel along the holes with their hands, listening to metal-detector pings to tell them where to reach.
"It's like coffee, working in a cup of coffee," Jacobs said.
They blew holes for days before finally catching a glimmer of something valuable.
Jacobs reached in and pulled out a gold spool of thread. Another hole revealed guns, dating from the late 1580s to 1620 -- the exact time the Magdalena would have sunk.
The guns, called harquebuses, were the most advanced weapons of the day, and only the highest order of the military had them, said Madeleine Burnside, executive director of the Mel Fisher Maritime Heritage Society in Key West.
"It's like a detective solving a murder," Ruth said. "You put all the pieces together, and it points to just one thing."
Their jubilation was fleeting, however.
Repeated dives during the next few months produced only a few more guns. Ruth thought the guns were from the Magdalena's forecastle, near the bow where the armory would have been. The treasury would be aft -- and deep within the hold, above the keel. It could have drifted away, or was buried even deeper, so they dug over a wider area.
The days and months ticked by.
Ruth ran low on money and had to calm his antsy backers. The rented boat broke down, and crew members were stricken with intestinal illnesses that kept them on land for weeks at a time. Some of Ruth's workers quit or were fired. Frustrated by working with outdated equipment and borrowed boats, Ruth decided to buy his own ship.
But it took months to get the ship and new equipment through customs.
And then on one very bad day in August 2005, members of Ruth's team thought it was all over.
Jacobs and another diver, plus Ruth's former electronics expert, had just returned to an apartment building in Guayaquil where they rented rooms to find the door ajar and three armed men inside.
The gunmen demanded money and grew angry that the trio didn't have more than a few dollars. Jacobs realized it was a setup. A week earlier, a friend's computer containing pictures of the treasure was stolen, so he figured these robbers wrongly thought they had the booty with them.
The gunmen marched the treasure hunters downstairs, ordering them to get on their knees.
Jacobs knew their lives were on the line. So when they got to the bottom of the staircase and moved toward a hallway door, Jacobs acted.
"I hung back and let the others walk by," he said.
Right when the robbers were in the doorway, Jacobs body-slammed the first gunman with the door.
He caught the gunman's arm and pistol in the doorway. Staring down the muzzle, Jacobs, breathing hard, tried desperately to get the door closed.
"I was knocking about in Joel's shoes. They had leather bottoms, and I couldn't get a grip. My feet were slipping."
His two friends seemed paralyzed. They didn't budge toward the door.
"The thought that we were done for did cross my mind."
With adrenaline-fueled strength, Jacobs braced one foot against a step and slammed the door hard against the gunman's arm. The robber cursed, and his arm and the gun disappeared behind the door as they fled.
Jacobs and his friends were safe.
But the lesson was clear: Ruth, who wasn't with them at the time, reminded the crew that secrecy is the only thing keeping them all alive.
It was Dec. 29 as the crew hovered over the dive site, operating in the worst weather of the season, when the captain mused they were floating over a graveyard.
"Davy Jones and all the sailor's ghosts were up on board tonight," he wrote in his logbook.
Ruth asked a local priest to bless the site.
But during the next month, the boat was bedeviled by strong currents, pulling them away from their anchored points.
The welds on the blowers broke, one slicing deep into Plaskett's left hand Jan. 19. He wrapped it and kept working. But a week later, he was feverish from infection. A local doctor cut into the captain's hand six times in three days, removing necrotic tissue each time. But the infection spread, so Ruth loaded him on a plane bound for a Florida hospital.
Without Plaskett, the team couldn't pilot the boat. He was back in a week, but the bad luck continued. The boat had more mechanical troubles, and Ruth was hospitalized from mosquito-borne dengue fever. The crew was growing weary from intestinal illnesses and heat.
"We were exhausted," Ruth said.
They gave up -- temporarily -- and returned home for a few months to rest. With the treasure so inaccessible, and government soldiers guarding the site, they could leave assured that no one else could steal their prize. Secrecy had grown less important than in the beginning.
"Some people call us madmen, but I, Ludwig van Beethoven, will prove them wrong," Ruth joked, wide-eyed and mimicking a German accent.
The men reassembled in Ecuador in August and resumed their treks into the muddy seabed. It was midmorning Sept. 2 when Jacobs called out that he found gold and guns.
"Fresh out of the brine, fellows," he said as he held up a wooden-handled pistol called a hackbut or hagbut.
It smelled like sulfur -- old iron.
"There's more," Jacobs said. "There's a whole wall of them."
With the help of four men, a rope and a cable, he brought up a large slab with eight to 10 ancient harquebuses. Mixed in were a trove of black coral-handled knives, beads, brass pins and rings.
Ruth smiled and said, "Roll over, Mel [Fisher]."
Ruth's backers also are confident. They expect private collectors, museums and elite auction houses will pay well for the galleon's riches.
"The market for these artifacts is huge," O'Connor said.
The men don't plan to sell all of the artifacts, though. They would like to set up a museum in Cocoa.
Their excitement is building. Just a few weeks ago, Ruth and his team pulled up a mahogany chest -- almost perfectly preserved -- that held a case of ancient swords.
It's a find that propelled the spirits of Ruth and his crew higher than they have been in years.
"We're close," Ruth said. "I can feel it."
Today, the hunt is on. There is treasure here.
And Ruth has no plans to give up -- even if the ship's bounty is discovered one gun, one sword, one spool of golden thread at a time.
New history exhibit about Yooper clothing
MARQUETTE, Mich. (WJMN) – The Marquette Regional History Center has released a new special exhibit centered around clothing worn by Yoopers over the past 170 years.
This collection showcases the clothing of different Yoopers including teachers, children, lawyers, farmers, and pioneers.
Jo Writtler is a curator at the Marquette Regional History Center, she said, “when you look at some of the older clothes most clothes today we think of like you have a front and a back and the whole shaping of a woman’s bodice was so much different from how it was constructed. When you look into the 1800’s it took into consideration the human body which is not flat by any means.”
The exhibit offers a glimpse at the functionality and design within clothing. Each piece of clothing has a a story and picture of its owner connected to it.
The exhibit tells stories of love, loss, and the people who built the U.P. into what it is today. You can view the exhibit now through January of 2022.
Pictured: a common depiction of Captain Henry Every's Jolly Roger
According to some historical accounts, the marauders tortured and killed the men aboard the Mughal vessel and raped the women in a so-called 'orgy of horror', seeking to extract information on where in her hold the Ganj-i-Sawai's treasures had been hidden.
Some versions of the story also suggest, grimly, that Captain Every himself found 'something more pleasing than jewels' onboard the vessel — often said to be the daughter, granddaughter or another relative of emperor Aurangzeb.
Having left the ransacked Ganj-i-Sawai to limp back to Surat and after compensating the crew of the Pearl for their share of the spoils, the Fancy set sail for Bourbon, today the island of Réunion, arriving two months later.
Here, the pirates divvyed up the treasures — with each man receiving £1,000 (the equivalent of £93,300–128,000 today, and far more than any sailor could typically expect to make across their lifetime) as well as a selection of gemstones.
In September 7, 1695, Captain Every's ship, the Fancy, engaged the Ganj-i-Sawai, which was owned by one of the world's most-powerful men, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. Pictured: a 19th century woodcut depicting the battle between the two vessels
On September 7, 1695, the Fancy and Mayes' ship, 'Pearl', engaged the Ganj-i-Sawai, which was owned by one of the world's most-powerful men, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (depicted here sitting on a throne holding a hawk while seated on a gold throne)
The attack had significant ramifications for both England and the East India Trading company — which was still recovering from the disastrous Anglo-Mughal War if 1686–90 — with the very future of English trade in India placed under threat.
Both the attack on the Ganj-i-Sawai's pilgrim travellers and the raping of the Muslim women were seen as a religious violation.
The local Indian governor took the step of arresting all English subjects in Surat, partly as retribution but also to protect them from rioting locals.
Meanwhile, Emperor Aurangzeb closed down four of the East India Company's factories in India and imprisoned their officers — and even threatened to attack the city of Bombay wit the goal of expelling the English from India forever.
To appease the Mughal empire, the East India Company promised to pay reparations for Every's crimes, while Parliament declared the pirates 'hostis humani generis' ('enemies of the human race').
This maritime law term placed them outside of legal protections and thereby allowing them to be 'dealt with' by any nation that saw fit.
Alongside this, the government placed a £500 bounty on Captain Every's head — one which the East India Company later doubled to £1,000 — with the Board of Trade coordinating what became the first worldwide manhunt.
Some versions of the story suggest, grimly, that Captain Every himself found 'something more pleasing than jewels' onboard the vessel — often said to be the daughter, granddaughter or another relative of emperor Aurangzeb. Pictured: a 20th Century illustration depicting Captain Every's encounter with the Emperor's granddaughter
'If you Google "first worldwide manhunt", it comes up as Every. Everybody was looking for these guys,' explained Mr Bailey.
Given their wanted status, Captain Every's crew disagreed on where to sail next.
Ultimately, the French and Danes elected to stay on Bourbon, while the rest of the crew set course for Nassau, the capital of New Providence in the Bahamas, which was considered a pirate haven.
Shortly before setting sail, Every is said to have purchased around ninety slaves — an acquisition which served the dual purpose of providing labour on the journey to the other side of the world, as well as serving as a resource that could be traded.
In this way, the pirates were able to avoid using their foreign currency, an act which would have served as a clue to their identities.
Breaking their voyage at the uninhabited Ascension Island, in the middle of the Atlantic, the crew succeeded in catching 50 sea turtles — enough food to last the rest of the voyage to Nassau — while losing 70 men who decided to remain there.
By the March of 1696, the Fancy had passed through St Thomas in the Virgin Islands — where the crew sold off some of their treasure — before dropping anchor near Eleuthera, some 50 miles (80 km) northeast of New Providence.
Captain Every (depicted here receiving three chests of treasure) and his crew initially fled with their ill-gotten gains to Bourbon (now Réunion), before ultimately making way to the island of New Providence in the Bahamas via Ascension Island
Masquerading as one 'Captain Henry Bridgeman', Every presented his crew to the island's governor, Sir Nicholas Trott, as unlicensed English slave traders who had just arrived from the coast of Africa and were in need of shore time.
In keeping with this deceit, the crew promised £860 — and the Fancy, once her cargo was unloaded — to Sir Trott in return for permission to make port and his keeping secret their claimed violation of the East India Company's trading monopoly.
The bribe was an attractive proposition for the governor, who also saw the benefits, with French forces reportedly en route, of having a heavily-armed ship in the harbour along with enough extra men on the island to properly man Nassau's 28 cannons.
When the Fancy was handed over to his possession, Sir Trott discovered a further bribe had been left on board for him — totalling 100 barrels of gunpowder and 50 tons of ivory tusks, as well as firearms, ammunition and ship anchors.
Sir Trott initially turned a blind eye to the pirates' possession of large quantities foreign-minted coins, as well as the patched-up battle damage on the Fancy.
However, he was also quick to strip the ship of anything valuable and — according to some accounts, deliberately arranged for her to be scuttled in order to dispose of evidence that could have later proved inconvenient for him.
To appease the Mughal empire, the English Parliament declared the pirates 'hostis humani generis' ('enemies of the human race'). This maritime law term placed them outside of legal protections and thereby allowing them to be 'dealt with' by any nation that saw fit. Alongside this, the government placed a £500 bounty on Captain Every's head (pictured) — one which the East India Company later doubled to £1,000 — with the Board of Trade coordinating what became the first worldwide manhunt
When word finally reached Nassau that both the Royal Navy and the East India Company were hunting for Every/'Bridgeman', the governor maintained that he and the islanders 'saw no reason to disbelieve' the crew of the Fancy's story.
Nevertheless, to maintain his reputation, he was forced to disclose the location of the pirates to the authorities — but not before tipping off Every and his 113-strong crew, who succeeded in escaping the island before they could be apprehended.
Exactly what happened to Captain Every after leaving New Providence in the June of 1696, however, has remained unclear.
Conflicting accounts suggest he retired quietly back to Britain or some unidentified tropical island, or squandered his wealth and ended up destitute.
According to one tale, for example, the former crew of the Fancy split up — with some remaining in the West Indies, some heading for North America and the rest returning to Britain.
After this, Every and twenty of the men supposedly sailed aboard the sloop (one-masted sailing boat) Sea Flower — captained by Joseph Faro — eventually arriving in Ireland.
Unloading their treasure, however, the pirates aroused suspicion, the account goes, with two of the men arrested while Every escaped once again.
Exactly what happened to Captain Every after leaving New Providence in the June of 1696, however, has remained unclear. Conflicting accounts suggest he retired quietly back to Britain or some unidentified tropical island, or squandered his wealth and ended up destitute. Pictured: an 1887 engraving depicting Captain Every selling his jewels
THE ONES THAT DIDN'T GET AWAY
Pictured: the High Court of Admiralty report on the trial of Every's crew in 1696
While Captain Every may have successfully vanished from recorded history after fleeing from the island of New Providence in June 1696, not all of his crew similarly evaded justice.
At the end of July the same year, Every's coxswain, John Dann, was arrested in Rochester on suspicion of piracy, after his chambermaid discovered he had sewn £1, 045 of gold sequins and ten English guineas into his waistcoat — and reported the fact to the local authorities.
Dann ultimately agreed — along with another captured crewman, Philip Middleton — to testify against other members of the Fancy's crew, who had been caught after trying to sell their treasures to jewellers.
Six of the pirates were convicted at trail — with five hanged and the sixth, Joseph Dawson, shown leniency for his guilty plea.
According to Mr Bailey, however, the coins he and others have found are evidence that the pirate captain first — or, at the vary least, a member of his crew — made their way to the American colonies, spending their plunder on day-to-day expenses.
The first complete coin surfaced in 2014 at Sweet Berry Farm in Middletown, a spot that had piqued Mr Bailey's curiosity two years earlier after he found old colonial coins, an 18th-century shoe buckle and some musket balls at the site.
Waving a metal detector over the soil, he got a signal, dug down and hit his 'paydirt' — a darkened, dime-sized silver coin that he initially assumed was either Spanish, or money minted by the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
The first complete coin surfaced in 2014 at Sweet Berry Farm in Middletown, a spot that had piqued Mr Bailey's curiosity two years earlier after he found old colonial coins, an 18th-century shoe buckle and some musket balls at the site. Waving a metal detector over the soil, he got a signal, dug down and hit his 'paydirt' — a darkened, dime-sized silver coin that he initially assumed was either Spanish, or money minted by the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Pictured: Mr Bailey scanning first for Colonial-era artefacts in a field in Warwick, Rhode Island
According to Mr Bailey, it was the Arabic text on the coin (pictured), he said, that got his pulse racing. Analysis confirmed that the exotic coin was minted in 1693 in Yemen
However, it was the Arabic text on the coin, he said, that got his pulse racing.
Analysis confirmed that the exotic coin was minted in 1693 in Yemen, a fact which immediately raised questions.
As Mr Bailey explained, there's no evidence that American colonists — who would have been struggling just to eke out a living in the New World — travelled to anywhere in the Middle East for trade purposes until decades later.
Since the 2014 find, other detectorists have unearthed 15 additional Arabian coins from the same era — ten in Massachusetts, three in Rhode Island and two in Connecticut (one of which was found in 2018 at a 17th-century farm site.)
Another coin, meanwhile, was found in North Carolina, where records have indicated that some of Every's men came ashore at the end of their voyage.
Since the 2014 find (pictured here resting against a piece of 17th century broken pottery featuring a likeness of Queen Mary) other detectorists have unearthed 15 additional Arabian coins from the same era — ten in Massachusetts, three in Rhode Island and two in Connecticut (one of which was found in 2018 at a 17th-century farm site)
'It seems like some of [Captain Every's] crew were able to settle in New England and integrate,' said Connecticut state archaeologist Sarah Sportman.
'It was almost like a money laundering scheme,' she added.
'There´s extensive primary source documentation to show the American colonies were bases of operation for pirates,' added Mr Bailey.
In fact, he said, obscure records show that a ship named the 'Sea Flower' — the same as the vessel Every supposedly reached Ireland on — sailed up the Eastern seaboard, arriving in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1696 bearing nearly four dozen slaves.
Finding the Arabian coin is not Mr Bailey's only pirate-themed find — in the late 1980s, he also served as an archaeological assistant during explorations of the wreck of the 18th Century pirate ship the Whydah Gally off of the coast of Cape Cod.
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Cost of Living 1996
Yearly Inflation Rate USA 2.93%
Year End Close Dow Jones Industrial Average 6448
Interest Rates Year End Federal Reserve 8.25%
Average Cost of new house $118,200.00
Average Income per year $36,300.00
Average Monthly Rent $554.00
Cost of a gallon of Gas $1.22
US Postage Stamp 32 cents
Average cost of new car $16,300.00
Minimum Hourly Wage Raised To $5.15
Below are some Prices for UK guides in Pounds Sterling
Average House Price 69,453
Yearly Inflation Rate UK 2.4%
Interest Rates Year End Bank of England 5.94%
Black Market FAQs
What Is a Simple Definition of the Black Market?
A black market is any market where the exchange of goods and services takes place in order to facilitate the transaction of illegal goods or to avoid government oversight and taxes, or both.
How Does the Black Market Work?
There are a variety of black markets and all of them work in different ways. A black market can be a physical market where two individuals meet to exchange illegal goods, for example, a drug transaction on a street corner. A black market can also exist online, such as on the dark web, where individuals communicate to exchange goods and payments are made in digital currencies.
What Is an Example of a Black Market?
An example of a black market would be the human trafficking market that engages in the capture of people throughout the world and their sale into various areas, such as forced labor and prostitution.
Is the Black Market Illegal?
All black markets are illegal.
Why Is It Called the Black Market?
There are various theories as to why it is called the "black" market. These include the association of the word black with shadows and darkness, with the markets that continued to sell slaves after abolition, and the association of the color black with anarchist groups.