Kusho L3Y 'Tina'

Kusho L3Y 'Tina'

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Kusho L3Y 'Tina'

The Kusho L3Y was a transport version of the Mitsubishi G3M 'Nell' Navy Type 96 attack bomber. It was produced in two versions, both of which emerged before the Japanese entry into the Second World War.

The first version – the L3Y1 Type 96 land transport Model 11 was produced at the Dai-Ichi Kaigun Kokusho (First Naval Air Arsenal) at Kasumigaura, then known as Kusho. The narrow fuselage of the G3M1 was emptied of the equipment required for the retractable turrets, and five rows each of two seats were placed along the sides of the aircraft, giving it a transport capacity of only ten. The L3Y could be identified by the row of cabin windows and the door on the port side.

The L3Y2 followed in 1939. This was based on the G3M2, but was given more powerful Kinsei 45 engines. It was faster than the L3Y1, but otherwise similar.

The L3Y was used by the Fleet Detachment Air Squadron, the Yokosuka Naval Air Test Centre, Naval Air Headquarters in Tokyo, and from 1942 with the 11th Transport Fleet. This last unit was used to maintain communication with Japan’s widespread island conquests, and its L3Ys were sometimes sighted travelling to and from Rabaul. The end of this service in April 1944 marked the final isolation of that Japanese base. During this period the L3Y was given the Allied codename 'Tina', although it later became known as the 'Nell'

The L3Y was not the first transport version of the ‘Nell’. In the late 1930s a number of G3M1s had been converted into military transport aircraft as the G3M1-L and given more powerful 1,075hp Kinsei 45 engines. At the same time just over 20 G3M2s were turned into Mitsubishi Twin-Engined Transports, and were used by Nippon Air Lines (Nippon Koku K.K.) and its successor Greater Japan Air Lines (Dai Nippon Koku K.K.). In 1939 one of these civil airliners made a round the world trip, covering 32,850 miles in 194 flying hours.

Aviation of Word War II

In the early thirties of the last century, it became necessary, in addition to the carrier-based aviation of the Imperial Japanese Navy, to create long-range coastal aviation, which included long-range torpedo bombers * and designed to compensate for the British and American superiority at sea. The 9-C specification, which defines the tactical and technical data of the new torpedo bomber, was transferred to Mitsubishi. The built prototype, which received the corporate designation Ka-9 and the military G1M1, first took to the air in April 1934. The new torpedo bomber was an all-metal monoplane with two-fin tail and retractable landing gear. There was no bomb bay - the combat load was placed on an external sling. Defensive weapons were housed in retractable turrets and side blisters. The aircraft had clean aerodynamic forms, had good controllability and maneuverability, and had a high potential in terms of improving flight performance while increasing the power of the power plant. The next prototype Ka-15, created on the basis of the Ka-9, surpassed in its characteristics most of the aircraft of the same class existing in the world at that time.

G3M1 (96-1-1). The decision on the serial production of the new torpedo bomber under the combat code "96-1-1" (factory G3M1) was made in the summer of 1936. The first 34 aircraft were installed air-cooled Kinsei-3 engines. Part of the torpedo bombers "96" of the first series under the same code were converted into military and civilian transport aircraft. On the 96-2-1 modification, the tank capacity was increased, and the Kinsei-4-1 power plant of increased power was installed, on the 2-2 and 2-3 modifications, the onboard armament was reinforced. The speed at an altitude of 4200 m did not exceed 348 km / h.

G3M2-1 (96-2-1). The first truly mass modification, 343 copies were made in the period from 1937 to 1939. Cars of this version were equipped with Mitsubishi Kinsei-4-1 or 4-2 engines with a capacity of 1075 hp. with., thanks to which the maximum speed increased to 376 km / h. In addition, the aircraft differed from their predecessors in the increased fuel reserve from 3805 to 3874 liters and in the more streamlined shape of the dorsal shooting towers. After the withdrawal from the parts of the first line, a number of vehicles of this modification were converted into training and reconnaissance vehicles, they were assigned the designations G3M2-K and G3M2-KAI, respectively.

G3M2-2 (96-2-2) - a modification developed taking into account the experience of military operations in China. It was produced at the Mitsubishi plant (from 1939 to 1941 - 238 cars were produced), and then at the Nakajima plant (from 1941 to 1942). The aircraft of this modification were equipped with Kinsei-4-5 engines of the same power (1075 hp), which had the best altitude characteristics. The armament was reinforced and consisted of a 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 cannon, which was housed in a fixed, elongated dorsal turret, and three 7.7 mm Type 92 machine guns (one in the front upper retractable turret and two in the convex side blisters behind the trailing edge of the wing ). On aircraft of later releases, an additional fourth machine gun was installed, the fire from which could be fired from the side windows of the navigator's cockpit, which was located behind the pilots sitting next to them (see layout diagram). The rest of the changes concerned mainly auxiliary equipment and did not affect the characteristics of the machine.

A number of G3M2 bombers have been converted into a kind of "firing points" designed to accompany conventional G3Ms. They did not carry a bomb load, but they were reinforced by the installation of four additional 7.7 mm machine guns.

G3M3 (96-2-3) - the last serial modification produced at the Nakajima plant from June 1942 to February 1943. The aircraft of this variant had the highest maximum speed among the G3M series machines (416 km / h) and the longest flight range (4680 km, with additional tanks - 6230 km). These figures were achieved due to the installation of 1300-horsepower Mitsubishi Kinsei-5-1 engines and an increase in the volume of fuel tanks (from 3874 to 5182 liters). Approximately twenty vehicles were converted into G3M3-Q patrol aircraft. They were equipped with a magnetic detector and achieved considerable success in the fight against enemy submarines, crediting 20 sunken submarines. On the basis of G3M bombers, specialists from the 1st Aviation Arsenal in Yokohama developed the L2Y transport version.

BTA aircraft. Taking into account good flight data and relatively high payload capacity, the G3M was redesigned into a transport aircraft. In 1939, the Navy, which lacked headquarters aircraft control, decided to re-equip some of the torpedo bombers into cargo-and-passenger vehicles. The armament was dismantled on the torpedo bombers transferred to the transport aviation, intra-fuselage fuel tanks and a passenger cabin for 10 seats were installed. The VTA version of the Navy received the combat code Transport aircraft "96". During the war, some of the "96" transport aircraft were used by the command of the Navy for the front-line drop of parachute assault forces.

A total of 1,048 aircraft of all modifications were built.

* - In the aviation of the Japanese Navy, torpedo bombers were designated by the term "strike aircraft" (in the aviation of the Ground Forces, it was used in the meaning of "attack aircraft"), while the term "bomber" in the aviation of the Navy was used to refer to dive-bombers .

Combat use. G3M of the Imperial Japanese Navy has been massively used since the summer of 1937 in the skies of China, striking targets at a distance of 2 thousand km from the home airfield. The aircraft, created for strikes against enemy ships, quite unexpectedly turned out to be a good strategic bomber, striking initially at airfields, and later at practically defenseless Chinese cities.

The coastal torpedo bombers received the greatest fame after the sinking of the British battleship Prince of Wales on December 10, 1941 and the battle cruiser Repulse as part of the Z formation. In total, along with both ships, 870 people died that day.

However, with considerable success, the aircraft suffered heavy losses due to the weakness of defensive weapons and the installation of unprotected fuel tanks, a characteristic feature of all Japanese aircraft during the initial period of World War II.

Long-range torpedo bombers G3M were successfully used by Imperial Japan throughout the war in the Pacific, but since 1943, they were mainly transferred to parts of the second line. The last time the aircraft of the Japanese Navy widely used coastal torpedo bombers was at the beginning of 1944 during a strategic defensive operation off the Mariana Islands archipelago.

The plane has passed the test of time, having gone through many modifications and remained in service for almost the entire war, finding application in a variety of qualities. The Allied aircraft received the code designation "Nell", in the variant of the transport aircraft - "Tina".

L3Y (草津 Kusho) was a transport version of the Mitsubishi G3M Navy Type 96 bomber. The transport aircraft was produced in two versions, both of which appeared before Japan entered World War II.

The first version, the L3Y1 Type 96 Land Transport Model 11, was produced at Dai-Ichi Kaigun Kokusho (First Naval Arsenal) in Kasumigaura, better known as Kusho. The equipment of retractable shooting towers was dismantled from the narrow fuselage G3M1 and rows of seats were placed on the sides of the fuselage for five people from each side, which provided passenger capacity for 10 people. In appearance, the L3Y could be identified by the rows of narrow windows along the fuselage and a door on the port side.

In 1939, following the L3Y1, the L3Y2 was released, converted from the G3M2 and receiving more powerful Kinsei 45 engines. The aircraft was converted by analogy with the previous model, however, due to the more powerful power plant, the transport aircraft became faster.

L3Y has been used by the Imperial Navy Air Squadron, the Yokosuka Naval Test Center, the navy headquarters in Tokyo, and since 1942 by the 11th Transport Fleet. This latter unit was used to support Japan's new island conquests, and L3Ys were frequently seen flying to and from Rabaul. The end of this service in April 1944 marked the final isolation of the Japanese base.

The L3Y was not the first transport version of the G3M bomber. In the late 1930s, the G3M1 series was converted to a military transport aircraft with the G3M1-L modification, with the more powerful 1,075 hp Kinsei 45 engines installed. from. everyone. At the same time, a little over twenty G3M2s were converted to Mitsubishi Twin-Engined Transports and used by Nippon Air Lines (Nippon Koku K.K.) and its successor Greater Japan Air Lines (Dai Nippon Koku K.K.). In 1939, one of these civil aircraft made , covering 32,850 miles in 194 flight hours * .

* - due to the outbreak of the war, the route through Europe had to be changed to South America and Africa, the length of the path covered was 52,860 km (the length of the Earth's equator is about 40,075 km).

Kusho L3Y 'Tina' - History



However, research for the accompanying caption revealed an even more fascinating story that - although usually relegated to the footnotes of history books – marked a number of profound changes in both the tactics and technology of warfare and in Britain’s decline as World Power.

When the Ka-15 prototype of the twin-engined stressed-skin Mitsubishi G3M first flew in July 1935 it was more technically advanced than any other bomber aircraft in the World with the possible exception of the Boeing Model 299 ( later to become the B-17 Flying Fortress and first flown in the same month ). At the time however, most Western military experts considered the Japanese as mere imitators of innovations from other cultures.

Indeed, not long after Orville Wright made the first flight by a powered aircraft on 17 December 1903 at Kill Devil Hill near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, Japan was able to defeat the theoretically much stronger Imperial Russian fleet so resoundingly that the rout triggered the Russian Revolution of 1905. In the longer term, Japan was to maintain a garrison in Manchuria ( then part of a China less politically unified than it is today ) as a defensive measure against a possible Russian invasion from its Far Eastern territories, By 1910, Japan had also acquired Korea as its colony.

Japan was also a useful ally of Britain and the United States in the 1914-1918 conflict but was frustrated by its lack of territorial rewards at the peace conferences of 1919. The post Great War depression also hit Japan harder than most countries, at a time when its population was growing by a million people a year, unemployment was high and crop failures led to famines.

In contrast, Britain had – in 1916 – completed the battlecruiser HMS Repulse as the largest warship in the World and – after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles – taken control of many former German and Turkish territories on behalf of the new League of Nations. Britain also took steps to strengthen its grip on the more far flung parts of its Empire, including – in 1924 - the start of construction of major naval base at Sembawang on the island of Singapore.

In July 1921 meanwhile, the ex-German battleship Ostfriesland had been sunk by bombers commanded by United States General Billy Mitchell during trials in Chesapeake Bay off America’s eastern seaboard.

On 15 May 1930 however, a revolt by young army officers - many of who hailed from poor agricultural backgrounds - marked the start of an increasing militarisation of Japanese life. Extreme nationalist "Patriotic Societies" became popular and a number of prime ministers that were either liberal or keen on peaceful dialogue with Western nations were assassinated.

By 1940 militarists had also taken over the education system - teaching the "bushido" code of death before surrender, martial arts, and reinforcing traditions of absolute loyalty to the Emperor who Japanese people worshipped as a god. Indeed, the Emperor Hirohito did nothing to denounce the militarisation of his empire, where western popular culture was frowned upon, the media became a tool of militarist propaganda and all civilians were expected to wear uniforms.

In 1931, extreme Japanese nationalists infiltrated the Japanese garrison in Manchuria and persuaded the soldiers to take over the iron and coal rich territory. As Manchuria was sparsely populated and only weakly defended, the garrison soon triumphed - although Japan later responded to international criticism of the coup by leaving the League of Nations.

The first production version, was powered by two 910 hp Mitsubishi Kinsei 3 radial engines, and had a defensive armament of three 7.7 mm (0.30 calibre) machine-guns, in two dorsal and one ventral turrets, all turrets being retractable.

Only 34 of this version were produced before 1,075 hp Kinsei radials became available. These resulted in the G3M2 Model 21, which as well as the more powerful engines had increased fuel capacity. The Model 21 was succeeded by the G3M2 Model 22 in which the defensive armament was increased to one 20mm cannon and four 7.7 mm machine-guns. The crew was increased from five to seven, including two additional gunners to man the enhanced armament. The Model 23 featured Kinsei 51 engines and further increased fuel capacity.

The G3M3 bomber variant was fitted with Mitsubishi Kinsei 14 cylinder radial engines developing 1 300 hp each and could carry 1764 lb of bombs or a torpedo over 3 871 miles at an altitude of 10 280’ at a maximum speed of 258 mph. For self defence it was fitted with one 20mm canon in a dorsal fairing, three 7.7mm machine-guns in fuselage positions and a dorsal turret. In all 1,048 G3Ms were built (636 by Mitsubishi and 412 by Nakajima)

Meanwhile, the first Mitsubishi G3Ms were delivered to the Imperial Japanese Navy in late 1936 and immediately proved popular with the crews that flew them. However, in July 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army crossed the Manchurian border and invaded northern China in search of further new sources of raw materials for Japanese industry.

On 14 August 1937 a force of G3M2s based at Taipei on the island of Formosa – now Taiwan - attacked targets in China 1,250 miles away. Ominously, Japan had made history’s first transoceanic air attack.

In September 1939 the armed forces of Japan’s European ally Germany invaded Poland - causing France and Britain declare war on the Nazi aggressor. By June 1940 Germany had also over-run Holland, Belgium and France and – as Mussolini came to the aid of fellow fascist dictator Adolf Hitler - the Battle of Britain had also begun in the skies over south-east England.

In practical terms for Japan, any attempts to seize the French colony of Indo-China ( later known as Vietnam ), the rubber-rich British colony of Malaya and the oilfields of the Dutch East Indies ( today's Indonesia ) seemed much more feasible with their European owners defeated or distracted.

Indeed, Vichy France was soon persuaded to allow Japanese forces on its soil, a move which so threatened the American dependency of the Phillipines that the United States embargoed the sale of iron ore and aviation fuel to Japan. In September 1940, Japan formally allied itself with Germany and Italy in the Tripartite Pact and in April 1941 signed a Neutrality Treaty with the USSR. As Japanese forces took over Indo-China during the summer of 1941, a further United States embargo on oil left the Japanese Navy - the largest in the Pacific Ocean - desperately short of fuel. Despite continuing diplomatic endeavours between Tokyo and Washington to lift the fuel embargo, Japanese military leaders ordered their troops to begin jungle warfare and amphibious landing training so that the Dutch East Indies could be captured before all of Japan's fuel ran out.

Amid this increased geopolitical tension, on the night of 11/12 November 1940, a small force of Fairey Swordfish torpedo-bombers from the British carrier Illustrious made a night attack on the Italian fleet base of Taranto - sinking or seriously damaging three battleships and two heavy cruisers in what the Italians had considered safe, shallow water.

Similarly, British carrier based aircraft proved their worth against enemy capital ships on 28 March 1941 at the Battle of Matapan, where the modern Italian battleship Vitorio Veneto was severely damaged in an attack by 5 torpedo planes from HMS Formidable. Later Mussolini’s heavy cruiser Pola was hit and crippled by torpedo aircraft and the following night she and her escorts were sunk by British warships.

However, the new addition to the Royal Navy had seriously damaged the Bismarck with three 14-inch shells. On 26 May the Bismarck was torpedoed and crippled by Swordfish biplanes from the British carrier Ark Royal and a day later the German battleship was scuttled after being wrecked by gunfire from the battleships King George V (Prince of Wales' sister ship) and Rodney.

By this time the G3M - known as "Nell" in American reporting nomenclature - was obsolete and being replaced by the larger and more capable G4M "Betty": just as the RAF had seen the Handley Page Hampden outclassed by the Vickers Wellington.

Many G3Ms were relegated to bomber training duties and a final version of the airframe was produced as the L3Y "Tina" transport.

Meanwhile, on 25 August 1941 Prime Minister Winston Churchill, sent a memorandum to the British Admiralty proposing that a 'formidable, fast, high-class squadron' consisting of a new battleship, a battlecruiser, and an aircraft carrier be sent to the Far East to deter Japan from offensive action. On 28 August the Admiralty replied with its own memorandum: proposing that a large, balanced battle fleet should be built up in the Indian Ocean while the new battleships Prince of Wales and King George V stay in home waters to counter the threat from the Bismarck's sister ship Tirpitz.

In fact earlier in August 1941 HMS Prince of Wales had taken Winston Churchill to Placentia Bay in the Canadian province of Newfoundland to meet Franklin Delano Roosevelt as United States President for the first time. Their discussions produced an impressive statement of democratic intent in a document later known as the Atlantic Charter. Among its provisions, Britain and the United States pledged to protect the right of peoples to choose their own governments and to live free from fear. More practically and immediately though, President Roosevelt presented each member of the crew of HMS Prince of Wales with a box containing an orange, an apple and either 200 cigarettes or half a pound of cheese.

Roosevelt also promised to commit the United States to even greater involvement in the European war, including supplying aid to the Soviet Union - invaded by Germany in June 1941 - "on a gigantic scale", more merchant ships to transport tanks and bomber aircraft to Britain, and five destroyers for each convoy sailing the dangerous North Atlantic run. Although the Placentia Bay talks brought America no closer to joining the conflict, Roosevelt confided in Churchill that a big dramatic incident would instantly clear all isolationist doubts and propel the United States to war on a wave of national outrage.

In Tokyo, on 16 October 1941 Prince Konoye, who did not accept that war between Japan and the Western powers was inevitable, resigned as Prime Minister and was replaced by the hard-line General Tojo. As a result British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden ( later Prime Minister during the 1956 Suez Crisis ), sent a memorandum to Churchill urging that deterrent forces be sent to the Far East as soon as possible.

A day later, at a Defence Committee meeting, Churchill continued to argue for the despatch to the Far East of a fast modern squadron. A.V. Alexander, the First Sea Lord argued the Admiralty case for a larger force built around older battleships deployed in the Indian Ocean. Eden supported Churchill, and arguing that the arrival of one of the new British battleships in Singapore would be a much more effective signal to the world of British resolution, and would do much more to reassure the governments and peoples of Australia and New Zealand. However, no decision was taken.

On 20 October at a British Chiefs of Staff meeting Dudley Pound, the First Sea Lord argued that Churchill's proposed deterrent squadron would not prevent Japan from invading Malaya, as the Japanese Navy would be able to overwhelm so small a force. In return, Churchill argued that Japan would not attack Malaya, but was likely to carry out raids against trade routes. Pound then gave up the attempt to dissuade Churchill, and proposed a compromise under which the battlecruiser Repulse - which would already be in the Indian Ocean on convoy escort duties - should be sent east. HMS Prince of Wales would then be sent to Capetown after which her further movements will be decided. The new aircraft carrier Indomitable would also join the Prince of Wales en route to the Cape of Good Hope.

Despite this, on 21 October, The Lords of the Admiralty decided that HMS Prince of Wales would sail for Singapore and on 24 October Admiral Tom Phillips raised his flag aboard Prince of Wales in the Clyde Estuary. HMS Prince of Wales, with escorting destroyers Electra and Express, then sailed for Capetown, arriving on 16 November 1941.

By 2 December what became known as Force Z arrived in Singapore – crucially without HM carrier Indomitable, which had run aground and left the capital ships without naval air cover.

On December 7 1941 Japanese Admiral Nagumo's carrier force made its crushing surprise attack on the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor and at 1735 on December 8 Force Z sailed from Singapore to attack Japanese invasion shipping off the coast of Malaya.

Admiral Phillips had precisely the same problem in Malaya. Should he steam into the Gulf of Siam and expose his ships to air attack from Indochina in the hope of breaking enemy communications with Japanese landing forces? He decided to take the chance. With the Royal Air Force and the British Army fighting for their lives, the Royal Navy could not be true to its tradition by remaining idly at anchor.

So Prince of Wales and Repulse, escorted by destroyers Electra, Express, Vampire and Tenedos, sailed from Singapore. Admiral Phillips left his Chief of Staff Palliser at the command post ashore and flew his flag in Prince of Wales.

At 0050 on 9 December 1941 Palliser radioed Phillips that the Royal Air Force was so pressed by giving ground support to land operations that the Admiral could expect no air cover off Singora. He also reported that Japanese heavy bombers were already in southern Indochina and that General MacArthur had been asked to send Brereton's Flying Fortresses to attack their bases.

Little did Palliser know that the United States Army Air Forces of the Far East were in a desperate situation. The Japanese invasion force was already well established in the peninsular section of Thailand, a country that had promptly surrendered. At Kota Bharu within British Malaya there was bitter fighting in a series of rear guard actions fought desperately by British and native troops. But by the time the British warships arrived, their opportunity had passed the vulnerable transports were already returning to base. Admiral Phillips did not realise this.

The Japanese, by striking at three points almost simultaneously, hoped to attract all available land-based fighters of the Royal Air Force and leave Phillips without air cover when they were ready for him and he steamed right into this trap.

Phillips was entering the Japanese air radius without air cover, but he still hoped to surprise a Japanese convoy at Singora. So on he sped to a position some 150 miles south of Indochina and 250 miles east of the Malay Peninsula.

At 1830, when the weather cleared and three Japanese naval reconnaissance planes were sighted from the flagship, he realised that his position was precarious and untenable. Reluctantly he reversed course to return to Singapore at high speed. It would have been a happy ending had he persisted in this resolve.

As he steamed south, dispatches from Singapore portrayed impending doom on the shores of Malaya. The British Army was falling back fast. Shortly before 2359 on 9 December word came through of an enemy landing at Kuantan, halfway between Kota Bharu and Singapore. Admiral Phillips, in view of the imminent danger to Singapore, decided to risk his force in a strike on Kuantan. But the report was false, and his brave reaction to it proved fatal.

At 0220 on 10 December 1941 Japanese submarine I-58 sighted Force Z through its periscope and fired five torpedoes at the British warships. These all missed – but the contact was reported to other Japanese forces. As a result, at 0600 the first wave of Japanese aircraft - three reconnaissance aircraft and nine G3M Nells armed with bombs – took off from Saigon to attack Force Z, followed by 86 torpedo aircraft between 0735 and 0930.

At dawn 10 December an unidentified plane was sighted by Force Z about 60 miles off Kuantan. Admiral Phillips continued on his course but launched a reconnaissance plane from Prince of Wales. It found no evidence of the enemy. The destroyer Express steamed ahead to reconnoitre the harbour of Kuantan, found it deserted, and closed the flagship again at 0835.

Not yet suspecting that his intelligence from Singapore was faulty, the Admiral continued to search for a non-existent surface enemy, first to the northward and then to the eastward. At about 1020 on 10 December an enemy plane was sighted shadowing Prince of Wales. The crews immediately assumed anti-aircraft stations.

At 1030 Admiral Phillips received a signal from the detached destroyer HMS Tenedos - 'Am being bombed by enemy aircraft' while at 1113 the first wave of attacking Japanese aircraft was sighted from Force Z. Two minutes later nine G3M2 Nells make a high-level bombing attack on Repulse, but despite one direct hit the battlecruiser was not seriously damaged.

At 1130 the Force Z flagship Prince of Wales' radar detected the approach of the next wave of Japanese planes. These were torpedo-carrying aircraft which arrived at 1142 and made two strikes in two minutes, leaving Prince of Wales severely damaged.

At 1158 a third Japanese wave attacked Force Z while at 1220 26 torpedo-armed Mitsubishi G4Ms "Betties" of the Kanoya Corps attacked. Nine of these twin-engined aircraft homed in on HMS Repulse and two were rapidly shot down by the battlecruiser’s anti-aircraft guns. However, other Japanese aircraft scored two torpedo strikes against HMS Repulse, the second jamming her rudder. Then, as Prince of Wales received four more torpedo hits, Repulse was hit by a further three torpedoes and sank.

By 1245 Prince of Wales had received a bomb hit which caused further serious damage and at 1305 the destroyer Express was ordered alongside Prince of Wales to take off survivors. At 1318 four Brewster Buffalo fighters from 453 Squadron RAF arrived in time to see Prince of Wales sink, and to chase off the remaining Japanese bombers.

Winston Churchill wrote of how he was aroused in the night and given the news.

"In all the war I never received a more direct shock. As I turned over and twisted in bed the full horror sank in upon me."

Meanwhile, no free-moving battleship had been sunk by air power before but now the Japanese had disposed of the only Allied battleship and battle cruiser in the Pacific Ocean west of Hawaii. The Allies lost face throughout the Orient and began to lose confidence in themselves. Methodically and relentlessly the Japanese forces drove down the Malay Peninsula. British, Australian and native troops fought valiantly but, as at Bataan, with the increasing knowledge that theirs – for the moment - was a lost cause.

Following the loss of Force Z many analysts - scoffing at the purported range of the Mitsubishi bombers - believed that the G3Ms must have been launched from aircraft carriers in the manner of April 1942’s "Doolittle Raids" on Tokyo using the flight deck of the USS Hornet. And there lay the rub. If so many of the "battlewagons" - which had ruled the seas since in the four decades since the launch of HMS Dreadnought – now littered the ocean floor then the time of the aircraft carrier as capital ship had truly come. They and their aircraft would dominate the battles of Midway, Guadalcanal and the Coral Sea until Allied forces reached back across the Pacific to the Marianas, within Boeing B-29 Superfortress range of Japan.

And, just as the G3Ms had flown from Taipei on 14 August 1937, so on 6 August 1945 a B-29 named Enola Gay would fly from Tinian Island on the first of two atomic missions that would both end Japanese aggression and change the World forever. Ironically 9 August 1945 would see a plutonium bomb drop from another 509th Bombardment Group B-29 on the Mitsubishi shipyards at Nagasaki - the very port where America had first traded with Japan.

Soon afterwards, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan and began to develop an atomic bomb of its own. During the ensuing arms race, the former German heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen was used to evaluate American nuclear testing in the Pacific and the name HMS Repulse was used for one of the four Polaris submarines which formed Britain's nuclear deterrent for over two decades from 1969.

Kusho L3Y 'Tina' - History

To order flowers, click on the links below.

Tottenham Foodland Floral Department 905-936-1043 or 905-936-1077

Surrounded by the love of his family on June 26, 2014 at Toronto Western Hospital. Brian Robinson in his 69th year, beloved husband of Maureen. Loving father of Andrea Robinson-Quioc (Alfie), and Neil Robinson. Dear brother of Esther Griffith (Bobby) of Northern Ireland, Jessie Troath (Bob) of England, brother in law of Hugh Gorman (Nell), Fred Gorman, Kathleen McIntyre (Billy), Audrey Gorman, Margaret Gorman, Noel Brown, and pre deceased by Ronnie Gorman, Jim Gorman, and Shirley Brown. Forever in the hearts of his extended family and friends.

The family will receive friends at Rod Abrams Funeral Home 1666 Tottenham Road, Tottenham 905-936-3477 on Tuesday July 1, 2014 from 11am until time of Memorial service in the Chapel at 12pm. Donations in memory of Brian may be made to Toronto General & Western Hospital Foundation (R. Fraser Elliott Building, 5th floor, 5S-801, 190 Elizabeth St. Toronto,M5G 2C4). www.RodAbramsFuneralHome.com

Peacefully on Tuesday June 24, 2014 at Southlake Regional Health Centre, Newmarket. Joy Sweet at 55 years of age, beloved wife of Terry. Loving mother of Kailley Dunn (Alex), Kodey, and Mackenzie (Leslie). Grandmother to Noah and Presley Dunn. Forever in the hearts of her parents Gord and Elsie Dodgson, her siblings: Linda Patenaude (Paul), Gord Dodgson (Linda), Steve Dodgson (Janet), Randy Dodgson (Sue), Kim Simpson (Rusty), and her extended family and friends.

Family will receive friends at The Church of the Evangelists (99 Queen Street North, Tottenham) on Monday June 30, 2014 from 11:30am until time of Service at 1pm. Arrangements entrusted to Rod Abrams Funeral Home, Tottenham 905-936-3477. In lieu of flowers donations may be made to the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada Simcoe County Chapter (44 Cedar Pointe Drive, Unit #1102, Barrie, L4N 5R7) in memory of Joy.

Scott: Margaret Rose,
Surrounded by her family at Headwaters Health Care Centre Orangeville, on Sunday June 22, 2014, in her 72 year. Margaret Scott, beloved wife of Keith Scott. Loving mother of Denise Scott-Heydon and her husband Scott. Sadly missed by her cherished grandchildren Kyle, and Luke. Forever in the hearts of her extended family and friends.
A Memorial service will be held at Rod Abrams Funeral Home 1666 Tottenham Rd., Tottenham 905-936-3477 on Saturday June 28, 2014 with visitation from 11am until time of Service at 12 noon. In Margaret’s memory, donations to the Heart & Stroke Foundation or the Canadian Cancer Society would be appreciated by the family.

(WWII R.C.A.F., Sergeant, Air Gunner).

Peacefully at Simcoe Manor Long Term Care, Beeton, on Sunday June 22nd, 2014. Hugh Latto, at 93 and a half years of age, beloved husband of Blanche (MacDonald). Loving father of Glenda (Roger Huyghe), and Sandra (Vic) Luksys. Adored Grandpa of Julia, Rachel, Mark, Neil, and Damon. Pre-deceased by parents Rev. Thomas T. and Ada (Burge) Latto and sisters Rhoda, Viola, and Edna.

The family will receive relatives and friends at Rod Abrams Funeral Home, 1666 Tottenham Road, Tottenham, 905-936-3477 on Wednesday June 25th, 2014 from 10:00 am until time of funeral service, in the chapel, at 11:00 am. Interment to follow in Trinity Cemetery, Beeton. In lieu of flowers, donations to Simcoe Manor Palliative Care Fund, 5988 – 8th Line, Beeton, Ontario, L0G 1A0 or the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, 112 Commerce Park Dr., Unit 1, Barrie, Ontario, L4N 8W8 would be appreciated by the family. www.RodAbramsFuneralHome.com

Passed away peacefully with his family by his side on Friday June 13th, 2014. Loving husband of the late Mary M. Gardner. Dear brother of Hilda Haun, Velma (Gord) Beasley, Vern and the late Blanche Forsyth. He will be lovingly remembered by his children Mary Harran, Joan Currie, Stan Clare and Jackie (Sean) Kerins, his grandchildren Kelly (Torsten), Allan (A.J.), Amber, Jeffrey, Michael, Jerrica and Zachary and his great grandchildren Amelia, Nathan, Isabella, and Jackson. At his request, cremation has taken place. A family service will be held at a later date. Arrangements entrusted to Rod Abrams Funeral Home, 1666 Tottenham Road, Tottenham, 905-936-3477. www.RodAbramsFuneralHome.com

Donaldson: Eleanor Georgina,
Peacefully on Sunday June 15, 2014 at Southlake Regional Health Center Newmarket. Eleanor Donaldson at the age of 74 years, beloved wife of the late Murray Donaldson. Loving mother of Norma Jean Wirz, Jeff Wirz (Deanna Marchione), and Ray Wirz (Betty), and step mother of Kevin, Johnny, Tina, Tammy, Greg, Timmy and all their families. Sadly missed by her grandchildren Brinkley Wirz, and Tyrone, Tiras, Eli, and Kyle McKnight, and great grandchildren Scarlett Ray and Jordan McKnight. Forever in the hearts of her extended family and friends.
Arrangements entrusted to Rod Abrams Funeral Home Tottenham 905-936-3477.
As per Eleanor’s wishes cremation has taken place.

Krawiec: Joyce Marie,
Peacefully on June 10, 2014, Joyce Krawiec at the age of 72 years. Beloved wife of Hal Krawiec. Loving mother of Dave (Drina Dinon) and Bill (Patti Chapel). Remembered with love by her grandchildren Rebecca and Lindsay. Sadly missed by her siblings: Reg Smith (Sue), Wally Smith (Anne), Carl Smith (Gail), and John Smith (Jacqui). Forever in the hearts of her extended family and many friends.
As per Joyce’s wishes a private family service will be held at a later date.
Arrangements entrusted to Westmount Funeral Chapel Kitchener.

Hicks: James Rick “Rich” (Hock Shop Alliston, Member of the bands Risque, and Crazy Leggs).

Suddenly at his home on Tuesday June 10, 2014. Rich Hicks at 64 years of age, beloved husband and best friend of Virginia (Gardiner). Loving father of Deacon (Melissa) and Tommy (Naima). Loved grandpa of Ariela, Hayla, Sophia, and Mya. Sadly missed by his cousin Scott (Donna) McNeil and their family.

The family will receive friends at Rod Abrams Funeral Home on Sunday June 15, 2014 from 11am until time of Memorial Service in the chapel at 1pm. Donations in memory of Rich may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation (112 Commerce Park Dr. Unit #1 Barrie, ON, L4N 8W8).

Riley: Terry Lynne.
Peacefully at Sunnbrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, on Saturday June 7th, 2014. Terry (Darby), in her 61st year, beloved wife of Craig Riley. Loving mother of Justin and Jason (Samantha) Riley. Dear sister of Wendy Wells and the late Lynne Greer and Ken Darby. Forever in the hearts of her extended family and friends.
Respecting Terry’s wishes cremation has taken place and a private family service will be held. Donations in Terry’s memory to the Canadian Cancer Society, Simcoe Muskoka Unit, 4 Checkley Street, Suite 103, Barrie, On, L4N 1W1 would be appreciated by the family. Arrangements entrusted to Rod Abrams Funeral Home, 1666 Tottenham Road, Tottenham, 905-936-3477.

Day: 31 January 2021

The York Catholic District School Board is proud to celebrate Black History throughout the month of February and beyond.

Schools will mark Black History Month by hosting virtual special events including visits from guest speakers and performers. Students of all ages will also learn about Black history and experiences through a variety of classroom learning activities that explore the significant contributions that people of . Continue reading "February is Black History Month"

VIDEO: Shinichi Maruyama at Bruce Silverstein Gallery

Shinichi Maruyama is a Japanese-born photographer from Nagano, Japan, now living and working in New York. This is the third exhibition of Maruyama’s work at the Bruce Silverstein Gallery, New York. As with the last body of work the current series of nine photographs titled Nude focus on movement, the singularity of motion and the abstract nature inherent to all figurative forms. In the present interview with Bruce Silverstein, owner of Bruce Silverstein Gallery, we talked about the inspirations behind the sculptural, draped, yet abstract images Shinichi Maruyama created for the exhibition and how it related to the ideas of traditional photography, traditional Japanese calligraphy and western art history.

Photography, in its traditional sense, is about capturing a single moment in time. The goal is then to replicate the experience and make the reproduction look as time and space relevant as the original moment. Maruyama looks at time at a much higher magnification- it’s still a single moment, but through Maruyama’s lens it’s shattered into a tiny fraction of itself. In Kusho, (tr. writing in the sky – Japanese) Shinichi’s previous series of photographs, the idea was to capture that one shattered fragment of time and show the traditional Japanese artistic media – ink and water – in a new abstract form. The collision – a perfect abstract gesture.

Despite the final output medium being a photograph, Maruyama “painted” his images with ink. But his paintings were in within a three dimensional space and utilized different material qualities of the medium. The final photograph essentially incorporated several things at once: traditional media, performance (of colliding the elements in space) and photography.

In Nude, Shinichi Maruyama repeats the practice, but this time he blends time, figure, performance, painting and photography in his own way. Nudes are a composite of 10,000 individual images taken in the span of 2-4 seconds and layered onto one another. As Bruce Silverstein pointed out: “The images are now without the beginning the middle or an end.” There is perfect continuity, uniformity and fluidity to his forms that no longer aspire to be recognized as figurative.

Maruyama’s Nudes are also a nod to Marcel Duchamp and his famous (or infamous) Nude Descending a Staircase, 1912. For Duchamp, who was in the middle of his exploration of film and the moving image the goal was to show multiple states of being present in space in a single painting. For Maruyama, the point is the reflection of Duchamp – he melds fractions of time and motion into a single entity. The New Yorker called his images “calligraphic, erotic and elegant”. We would like to add – timeless.

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Clinical Supervision and Qualified Supervisors - Therapists in Ontario

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(Savage Sword of Conan #191 (fb)) [ edit | edit source ]

- The Skull of Thulsa Doom somehow reformed and ended up within a cavern on an island off the coasts of Kush. There it was found by the former Khitan nobleman Kuchum, to whom it spoke and enthralled with tales of the pre-Cataclysmic era. Doom told Kuchum of a great treasure in the Western Sea.

Comments: Created by Robert E. Howard. Adapted by Roy Thomas and Marie+John Severin.

After Thulsa Doom's death in the pre-cataclysmic era, the other wizards of that era joined together seeking revenge. They managed to obtain the parchments of Chthon, and they became the very first group of Darkholders. They used these parchments to unleash a spell such as the world had never seen. This spell transformed one of their own, Varnae, into the first vampire on Earth. This is revealed in Dr. Strange III#11/2 "The Book of the Vishanti."

Nakura, a "sorcerer of sunken Atlantis" used the Talisman of Thulsa Doom, @ Savage Sword of Conan#219, 220.

In the Hyborian era, Thulsa Doom claimed to have had six lives thus far. Can anyone name them all? Not I!

Further REH history courtesy of John McDonagh: Delacarde's Cat was the first actually published appearance of Thulsa Doom. You see, very few Kull stories were published during Robert E. Howard's lifetime. Delacardes' cat was one of those manuscripts that stayed in Howard's house after he committed suicide, and only saw the light of day in 1967. So, yes, the story was written by at least 1936, but not published until 1967.

Kull#11, "By this axe I rule," is the original version of the story that was later published as a Conan story, and retold in the Marvel Universe in Conan Annual#2, "The Phoenix on the Sword".

Please let me known what I've missed, and I'll add it. While I enjoy these stories immensely, the Swords and Sorcery eras are not my strong suit. Wayne Lenihan and John McDonagh/Per Degaton have been very helpful in supplying me with a bibliographies and chronologies, and other good stuff.

Per Degaton adds: It turns out that Thulsa Doom also appeared in the Conan newspaper comic strip. This probably would not be canonical, though some of the Conan newspaper strip was reprinted in Conan Saga, and the name "Greshan" for Conan's mother was taken from the comic strip.

House of Shades: "What do you sell here?" "Just shades." "How about a light bulb?" "No, sorry, all we sell is shades. Perhaps if you want a light bulb you should go to House of Bulbs"

There is no reason, short of licensing rights, that Thulsa Doom should not make an appearance in the modern era.

Speaking of licensing rights, please let me know owns the rights to Thulsa Doom, and I'll credit him/her/them appropriately.

Clarifications: I'm told that Mark Gruenwald thought that Thulsa may have been a time-traveling von Doom. There is no information either way regarding any potential connection between Thulsa Doom and Victor von Doom, or anyone else from the modern era.

Kuthulos, the mystic, an agent of Delcarde, @ Kull the Conqueror#7, has no known connection to:

Shiva, the servant of Kull ensorcelled by Thulsa Doom, @ Kull the Conqueror#3, has no known connection to:

For the most part, it's safe to assume that a character from the past ages is NOT the same as one from the modern era, unless specifically stated. ----

Appearances: Monsters on the Prowl#16 (April, 1972) - Roy Thomas (writer), John Severin (pencils), Marie Severin (inks), Stan Lee (editor) Kull the Conqueror#3 (July, 1972) - Roy Thomas (writer), Marie Severin (pencils), John Severin (inks), Stan Lee (editor) Kull the Conqueror#7 (March, 1973) - Gerry Conway (writer), Marie Severin (pencils), John Severin (inks), Roy Thomas (editor) Kull the Destroyer#11 (November, 1973) - Roy Thomas (writer/editor), Mike Ploog (artist) Kull the Destroyer#12 (February, 1974) - Steve Englehart (writer), Mike Ploog (pencils), Sal Buscema & John Romita (inks), Roy Thomas (editor) Kull the Destroyer#13 (April, 1974) - Steve Englehart (writer), Mike Ploog (pencils), Al Milgrom (inks), Roy Thomas (editor) Kull the Destroyer#14 (June, 1974) - Steve Englehart (writer), Mike Ploog (pencils), Jack Abel (inks), Roy Thomas (editor) Kull the Destroyer#15 (August, 1974) - Steve Englehart (writer), Mike Ploog (pencils), Ernie Chan (inks), Roy Thomas (editor) Kull and the Barbarian#2 (July, 1975) - Gerry Conway (writer), Jess Jodloman (artist), Roy Thomas (editor) Kull and the Barbarian#3 (September, 1975) - Doug Moench (writer), Vicente Alcazar (artist), Roy Thomas (editor) Kull the Destroyer#22-23 (August-October, 1977) - Don Glut (writer), Ernie Chan (pencils), Yong Montano (inks), Roy Thomas (editor) Kull the Destroyer#24 (December, 1977) - Don Glut (writer), Ernie Chan (pencils), Dino Castrillo (inks), Roy Thomas (editor) Kull the Destroyer#25-26 (February-April, 1978) - Don Glut (writer), Ernie Chan (pencils), Rudy Nebres (inks), Roy Thomas (editor) Kull the Destroyer#27 (June, 1978) - Don Glut (writer), Ernie Chan (pencils), Ricardo Villamonte (inks), Roy Thomas (editor) Kull the Destroyer#28-29 (August-October, 1978) - Don Glut (writer), Ernie Chan (pencils), George Roussos (inks), Roy Thomas (editor) Marvel Preview#19 (Summer 1979) - Roy Thomas (writer/editor), Sal Buscema (pencils), Tony DeZuniga (inks), Ralph Macchio & Mark Gruenwald (editors) Conan the Barbarian Annual#12 (1987) - Jim Owsley & Val Semeiks (writers), Vince Giarrano (pencils), Ernie Chan (inks), Michael Higgins (editor) Conan the Barbarian I#200 (November, 1987) - Jim Owsley & Mark B. Bright (writers), Valdis Semeiks (pencils), Geof Isherwood (inks), Michael Higgins (editor) Conan the Barbarian I#201 (December, 1987) - Jim Owsley (writer), Andy Kubert (artist), Michael Higgins (editor) Conan the Barbarian I#202 (January, 1988) - Jim Owsley (writer), Valdis Semeiks (writer/pencils), Geof Isherwood (inks), Michael Higgins (editor) Conan the Barbarian I#203 (February, 1988) - Jim Owsley (writer), Valdis Semeiks (pencils), Geof Isherwood (inks), Michael Higgins (editor) Savage Sword of Conan#190 (October, 1991) - Roy & Dann Thomas (writers), John Buscema (pencils), Tony DeZuniga (inks), Mike Rockwitz (editor) Savage Sword of Conan#191 (November, 1991) - Roy & Dann Thomas (writers), John Buscema (pencils), Tony DeZuniga & Ernie Chan (inks), Mike Rockwitz (editor) Savage Sword of Conan#193 (December, 1991) - Roy & Dann Thomas (writers), John Buscema (pencils), Ernie Chan (inks), Mike Rockwitz (editor) Conan Saga#72 (March, 1993) - Reprint of Kull the Destroyer#12 Conan Saga#87-88 (June-July, 1994) - Reprint of Kull the Destroyer#13-14 Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Hardcover#7: MAGIC (2009) - David Sexton (writer), Jeff Younquist & Jennifer Gruenwald (editors) ----

OK, You may not recognize the name, but he made his fist appearance in Kull short story written by Robert E. Howard published in 1967. Still not ringing a bell he was the antagonist in Conan the Movie and was played by James Earl Jones. Thulsa Doom is apparently hot for reason. He has a new comic and has a film in development starring Djimon Hounson. Here’s some excerpts from a interview with the writer of the new Thulsa Doom comic by Dynamite Entertainment. (That Alex Ross cover makes him look like a real bad ass.otherwise utter crap,as Edmund Blackadder would say.

    we brought you word that twice-Nominated for an Oscar actor Djimon Hounsou would be producing (along with Dynamite Entertainment’s Nick Barrucci and Arthur and Luke Lieberman) and starring in a film based on Thulsa Doom, the Hyperborian villain who has plagued both Conan and Red Sonja.Obvisously the morons are Dynamie Entertainment-slock merchants,do want real Conan or Robert E.Howard fan,but nuckleheads who saw two bad Conan movies and one bad Kull .The character has most recently seen life in Dynamite’s comic book series, where he is something of a transplant from Robert E. Howard’s Conan “universe” in which originated in the ‘30s. Doom has been one of Red Sonja’s primary antagonists in the ongoing Dynamite series, and co-starred with Sonja in 2006's miniseries.
  • As the film version of Thulsa Doom’s life moves along towards Hollywood, Dynamite has announced an August start of the ongoing series, written by Arvid () Nelson, with art by Lui Antonio. And while #1 hits comic shops in July, Dynamite has provided Newsarama with an at the Alex Ross-painted and very Hounsou-inspired cover to September’s issue #2.
  • The solicitation for the first issue reads:
  • Written by ARVID NELSON
  • Art by LUI ANTONIO
  • Cover by ALEX ROSS
  • Virgin art retailer incentive cover by ALEX ROSS
  • Negative art incentive cover by ALEX ROSS
  • Rare spot color cover by ALEX ROSS
  • From the pages of writer Robert E. Howard comes the debut of Dynamite’s Thulsa Doom!
  • Written by Kull writer Arvid Nelson and illustrated by Lui (Red Sonja) Antonio, the opening story arc also features cover artist Alex Ross! Featuring the origins of the ultimate anti-hero, Thulsa Doom #1 opens after the destruction of Atlantis, when the world was in chaos and Thulsa sought his own path to ultimate power!

Category: General

While we are learning remotely please remember our digital citizenship and responsibilities. See newsletter above for the YCDSB policies. Thanks for your continued support.

✝️Catholic School Council Meeting MONDAY APRIL 19th ✝️

If you want to watch the live stream of CSC on Monday, April 19 at 7 PM, please use this link ⤵️

IMPORTANT: All participants must register their email with Ms. Bebie PRIOR to the commencement of the meeting so that you can access the livestream. If you email once the meeting has . Continue reading "✝️Catholic School Council Meeting MONDAY APRIL 19th ✝️"

Black History Month

February is Black History Month. It is a time for Canadians to celebrate the many achievements and contributions of Black Canadians who, throughout history, have done so much to make Canada the culturally diverse, compassionate and prosperous nation it is today. It is also an opportunity to recognize historic and present forms of anti-Black racism in Ontario and challenge negative . Continue reading "Black History Month"


ear Parents,

The government has revised the SUPPORT FOR LEARNING GRANT! You can now apply for a one time $200.00 government learning grant for each of your own children up to and including Grade 12. If you have a child with special needs and is under 21, there is a $250.00 grant. It is very simple to fill out. No receipts . Continue reading "SUPPORT FOR LEARNING GRANT"

SES January Newsletter

We thank all our staff, students and parents for their continued efforts in this ever changing school year. Everyone is trying their best in the circumstances that they face. The new normal weighs heavily, at times, on all of us. Remember to take things one day at a time, even one hour at a time if needed. Look for those small celebratory moments and God . Continue reading "SES January Newsletter"

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