February 25, 2013 Day 37 of the Fifth Year - History

February 25, 2013 Day 37 of the Fifth Year - History


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President Barack Obama talks with Gov. Peter Shumlin, D-Vt., center, chair of the Democratic Governors Association, and Gov. Mike Pence, R-Ind., after a meeting with the NGA in the State Dining Room of the White House, Feb. 25, 2013.


Daily Readings

In Babylon there lived a man named Joakim,
who married a very beautiful and God-fearing woman, Susanna,
the daughter of Hilkiah
her pious parents had trained their daughter
according to the law of Moses.
Joakim was very rich
he had a garden near his house,
and the Jews had recourse to him often
because he was the most respected of them all.

That year, two elders of the people were appointed judges,
of whom the Lord said, “Wickedness has come out of Babylon:
from the elders who were to govern the people as judges.”
These men, to whom all brought their cases,
frequented the house of Joakim.
When the people left at noon,
Susanna used to enter her husband’s garden for a walk.
When the old men saw her enter every day for her walk,
they began to lust for her.
They suppressed their consciences
they would not allow their eyes to look to heaven,
and did not keep in mind just judgments.

One day, while they were waiting for the right moment,
she entered the garden as usual, with two maids only.
She decided to bathe, for the weather was warm.
Nobody else was there except the two elders,
who had hidden themselves and were watching her.
“Bring me oil and soap,” she said to the maids,
“and shut the garden doors while I bathe.”

As soon as the maids had left,
the two old men got up and hurried to her.
“Look,” they said, “the garden doors are shut, and no one can see us
give in to our desire, and lie with us.
If you refuse, we will testify against you
that you dismissed your maids because a young man was here with you.”

“I am completely trapped,” Susanna groaned.
“If I yield, it will be my death
if I refuse, I cannot escape your power.
Yet it is better for me to fall into your power without guilt
than to sin before the Lord.”
Then Susanna shrieked, and the old men also shouted at her,
as one of them ran to open the garden doors.
When the people in the house heard the cries from the garden,
they rushed in by the side gate to see what had happened to her.
At the accusations by the old men,
the servants felt very much ashamed,
for never had any such thing been said about Susanna.

When the people came to her husband Joakim the next day,
the two wicked elders also came,
fully determined to put Susanna to death.
Before all the people they ordered:
“Send for Susanna, the daughter of Hilkiah,
the wife of Joakim.”
When she was sent for,
she came with her parents, children and all her relatives.
All her relatives and the onlookers were weeping.

In the midst of the people the two elders rose up
and laid their hands on her head.
Through tears she looked up to heaven,
for she trusted in the Lord wholeheartedly.
The elders made this accusation:
“As we were walking in the garden alone,
this woman entered with two girls
and shut the doors of the garden, dismissing the girls.
A young man, who was hidden there, came and lay with her.
When we, in a corner of the garden, saw this crime,
we ran toward them.
We saw them lying together,
but the man we could not hold, because he was stronger than we
he opened the doors and ran off.
Then we seized her and asked who the young man was,
but she refused to tell us.
We testify to this.”
The assembly believed them,
since they were elders and judges of the people,
and they condemned her to death.

But Susanna cried aloud:
“O eternal God, you know what is hidden
and are aware of all things before they come to be:
you know that they have testified falsely against me.
Here I am about to die,
though I have done none of the things
with which these wicked men have charged me.”

The Lord heard her prayer.
As she was being led to execution,
God stirred up the holy spirit of a young boy named Daniel,
and he cried aloud:
“I will have no part in the death of this woman.”
All the people turned and asked him, “What is this you are saying?”
He stood in their midst and continued,
“Are you such fools, O children of Israel!
To condemn a woman of Israel without examination
and without clear evidence?
Return to court, for they have testified falsely against her.”

Then all the people returned in haste.
To Daniel the elders said,
“Come, sit with us and inform us,
since God has given you the prestige of old age.”
But he replied,
“Separate these two far from each other that I may examine them.”

After they were separated one from the other,
he called one of them and said:
“How you have grown evil with age!
Now have your past sins come to term:
passing unjust sentences, condemning the innocent,
and freeing the guilty, although the Lord says,
‘The innocent and the just you shall not put to death.’
Now, then, if you were a witness,
tell me under what tree you saw them together.”
“Under a mastic tree,” he answered.
Daniel replied, “Your fine lie has cost you your head,
for the angel of God shall receive the sentence from him
and split you in two.”
Putting him to one side, he ordered the other one to be brought.
Daniel said to him,
“Offspring of Canaan, not of Judah, beauty has seduced you,
lust has subverted your conscience.
This is how you acted with the daughters of Israel,
and in their fear they yielded to you
but a daughter of Judah did not tolerate your wickedness.
Now, then, tell me under what tree you surprised them together.”
“Under an oak,” he said.
Daniel replied, “Your fine lie has cost you also your head,
for the angel of God waits with a sword to cut you in two
so as to make an end of you both.”

The whole assembly cried aloud,
blessing God who saves those who hope in him.
They rose up against the two elders,
for by their own words Daniel had convicted them of perjury.
According to the law of Moses,
they inflicted on them
the penalty they had plotted to impose on their neighbor:
they put them to death.
Thus was innocent blood spared that day.

The assembly condemned Susanna to death.

But Susanna cried aloud:
“O eternal God, you know what is hidden
and are aware of all things before they come to be:
you know that they have testified falsely against me.
Here I am about to die,
though I have done none of the things
with which these wicked men have charged me.”

The Lord heard her prayer.
As she was being led to execution,
God stirred up the holy spirit of a young boy named Daniel,
and he cried aloud:
“I will have no part in the death of this woman.”
All the people turned and asked him,
“What is this you are saying?”
He stood in their midst and continued,
“Are you such fools, O children of Israel!
To condemn a woman of Israel without examination
and without clear evidence?
Return to court, for they have testified falsely against her.”

Then all the people returned in haste.
To Daniel the elders said,
“Come, sit with us and inform us,
since God has given you the prestige of old age.”
But he replied,
“Separate these two far from each other that I may examine them.”

After they were separated one from the other,
he called one of them and said:
“How you have grown evil with age!
Now have your past sins come to term:
passing unjust sentences, condemning the innocent,
and freeing the guilty, although the Lord says,
‘The innocent and the just you shall not put to death.’
Now, then, if you were a witness,
tell me under what tree you saw them together.”
“Under a mastic tree,” he answered.
Daniel replied, “Your fine lie has cost you your head,
for the angel of God shall receive the sentence from him
and split you in two.”
Putting him to one side, he ordered the other one to be brought.
Daniel said to him, “Offspring of Canaan, not of Judah,
beauty has seduced you, lust has subverted your conscience.
This is how you acted with the daughters of Israel,
and in their fear they yielded to you
but a daughter of Judah did not tolerate your wickedness.
Now, then, tell me under what tree you surprised them together.”
“Under an oak,” he said.
Daniel replied, “Your fine lie has cost you also your head,”
for the angel of God waits with a sword to cut you in two
so as to make an end of you both.”

The whole assembly cried aloud,
blessing God who saves those who hope in him.
They rose up against the two elders,
for by their own words Daniel had convicted them of perjury.
According to the law of Moses,
they inflicted on them
the penalty they had plotted to impose on their neighbor:
they put them to death.
Thus was innocent blood spared that day.


Traditions

Aside from New Year’s Eve, there are other important days of the 15-day Chinese New Year Festival, including:

JIE CAI CENG: Welcoming the Gods of Wealth and Prosperity
On the fifth day of New Year’s, it is believed that the gods of prosperity come down from the heavens. Businesses will often participate in setting off firecrackers as they believe it will bring them prosperity and good fortune for their business.

YUAN XIAO JIE: Festival of Lanterns
The 15th day of the New Year is known as the Festival of Lanterns and marks the end of the Chinese New Year celebrations. All types of lanterns are lit throughout the streets and often poems and riddles are often written for entertainment.

There are also paper lanterns on wheels created in the form of either a rabbit or the animal of the year (Dog for 2018). The rabbit lantern stems from a Chinese myth or fairytale about a female goddess named Chang E who jumped onto the moon.

So she wouldn’t travel alone, she brought a rabbit with her to keep her company. It is said that if your heart is pure enough, you can see the goddess Chang E and her rabbit on the moon on this day.


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Fifth Sunday after the Epiphany

Year B

February 7, 2021

Isaiah 40:21-31
40:21 Have you not known? Have you not heard? Has it not been told you from the beginning? Have you not understood from the foundations of the earth?

40:22 It is he who sits above the circle of the earth, and its inhabitants are like grasshoppers who stretches out the heavens like a curtain, and spreads them like a tent to live in

40:23 who brings princes to naught, and makes the rulers of the earth as nothing.

40:24 Scarcely are they planted, scarcely sown, scarcely has their stem taken root in the earth, when he blows upon them, and they wither, and the tempest carries them off like stubble.

40:25 To whom then will you compare me, or who is my equal? says the Holy One.

40:26 Lift up your eyes on high and see: Who created these? He who brings out their host and numbers them, calling them all by name because he is great in strength, mighty in power, not one is missing.

40:27 Why do you say, O Jacob, and speak, O Israel, "My way is hidden from the LORD, and my right is disregarded by my God"?

40:28 Have you not known? Have you not heard? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He does not faint or grow weary his understanding is unsearchable.

40:29 He gives power to the faint, and strengthens the powerless.

40:30 Even youths will faint and be weary, and the young will fall exhausted

40:31 but those who wait for the LORD shall renew their strength, they shall mount up with wings like eagles, they shall run and not be weary, they shall walk and not faint.

Psalm 147:1-11, 20c
147:1 Praise the LORD! How good it is to sing praises to our God for he is gracious, and a song of praise is fitting.

147:2 The LORD builds up Jerusalem he gathers the outcasts of Israel.

147:3 He heals the brokenhearted, and binds up their wounds.

147:4 He determines the number of the stars he gives to all of them their names.

147:5 Great is our Lord, and abundant in power his understanding is beyond measure.

147:6 The LORD lifts up the downtrodden he casts the wicked to the ground.

147:7 Sing to the LORD with thanksgiving make melody to our God on the lyre.

147:8 He covers the heavens with clouds, prepares rain for the earth, makes grass grow on the hills.

147:9 He gives to the animals their food, and to the young ravens when they cry.

147:10 His delight is not in the strength of the horse, nor his pleasure in the speed of a runner

147:11 but the LORD takes pleasure in those who fear him, in those who hope in his steadfast love.

1 Corinthians 9:16-23
9:16 If I proclaim the gospel, this gives me no ground for boasting, for an obligation is laid on me, and woe to me if I do not proclaim the gospel!

9:17 For if I do this of my own will, I have a reward but if not of my own will, I am entrusted with a commission.

9:18 What then is my reward? Just this: that in my proclamation I may make the gospel free of charge, so as not to make full use of my rights in the gospel.

9:19 For though I am free with respect to all, I have made myself a slave to all, so that I might win more of them.

9:20 To the Jews I became as a Jew, in order to win Jews. To those under the law I became as one under the law (though I myself am not under the law) so that I might win those under the law.

9:21 To those outside the law I became as one outside the law (though I am not free from God's law but am under Christ's law) so that I might win those outside the law.

9:22 To the weak I became weak, so that I might win the weak. I have become all things to all people, that I might by all means save some.

9:23 I do it all for the sake of the gospel, so that I may share in its blessings.

Mark 1:29-39
1:29 As soon as they left the synagogue, they entered the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John.

1:30 Now Simon's mother-in-law was in bed with a fever, and they told him about her at once.

1:31 He came and took her by the hand and lifted her up. Then the fever left her, and she began to serve them.

1:32 That evening, at sundown, they brought to him all who were sick or possessed with demons.

1:33 And the whole city was gathered around the door.

1:34 And he cured many who were sick with various diseases, and cast out many demons and he would not permit the demons to speak, because they knew him.

1:35 In the morning, while it was still very dark, he got up and went out to a deserted place, and there he prayed.

1:36 And Simon and his companions hunted for him.

1:37 When they found him, they said to him, "Everyone is searching for you."

1:38 He answered, "Let us go on to the neighboring towns, so that I may proclaim the message there also for that is what I came out to do."

1:39 And he went throughout Galilee, proclaiming the message in their synagogues and casting out demons.

Scripture texts are from the New Revised Standard Version of the Bible. Lections are from the Revised Common Lectionary Daily Readings. See the Terms of Use for copyright details.

The online Revised Common Lectionary is a project of the Vanderbilt Divinity Library, a division of the Jean and Alexander Heard Libraries.


B+W photo of Rotterdam & Nieuw Amsterdam maneuvered by Moran tugs near 5th St. Pier, Hoboken, n.d., ca. 1959-1961. - Photograph

Black-and-white aerial photo of S.S. Rotterdam and S.S. Nieuw [New] Amsterdam being shifted in Hudson River by Moran tugboats near Fifth Street Pier of Holland America Line, Hoboken, n.d., ca. Sept. 1959-1961. Digital image only. Original: real photo postcard, 3-1/2" x 5-3/8" wide divided back unused and unposted. Photographer not indicated, but credited on back: "Photo from Moran" View is east of these two ocean liners being maneuvered by tugs near the American home port of Holland America (until 1961). River end of the Hoboken pier is seen at the lower left corner. The New Amsterdam is at the bottom. The Rotterdam arrived in Hoboken on its maiden voyage Sept. 11, 1959, but photo is


Born This Day In History 25th January

Celebrating Birthday's Today Alicia Keys Born: Alicia Augello Cook 25th January 1981 New York, United States
Known For : Alicia Keys is an American R&B and soul singer-songwriter, pianist and actress. She was born in one of the roughest areas on New York ( Hells Kitchen ) where it was known in earlier decades as the home of organized crime. Alicia Keys attended Professional Performing Arts School where a number of other notable artists have attended including Britney Spears, and graduated at sixteen. She has had a successfull career as a solo artist winning eleven Grammy Awards, and 4 top selling albums Songs in A Minor, The Diary of Alicia Keys, Unplugged and As I Am . She has also had a number of singles that have not only topped the charts in the US but around the world including "Fallin'" and "No One".


List of presidents of the Philippines

The colors indicate the political party affiliation of each individual.

Key
Party English name Abbreviation
Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas Association for Service to the New Philippines KALIBAPI
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan New Society Movement KBL
Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino Struggle of the Patriotic Filipino Masses LAMMP
Lakas ng Tao–Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino–Christian Muslim Democrats People Power–Partner of the Free Filipino–Christian Muslim Democrats Lakas–Kampi–CMD
Lakas ng Tao–National Union of Christian Democrats People Power–National Union of Christian Democrats Lakas–NUCD
Liberal Party Liberal
Nacionalista Party Nationalist Party Nacionalista
Partido Demokratiko Pilipino–Lakas ng Bayan Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power PDP–Laban
United Nationalist Democratic Organization UNIDO
Non-partisan N/A

Prior to the First Republic Edit

The Spaniards colonized the Philippines as the Captaincy General of the Philippines. The Spanish monarchy was represented by the Governor-General from 1565 to 1898. Spain ceded all of its remaining possessions, including the Philippines, save for Cuba at the end of the Spanish–American War via the Treaty of Paris.

1899–1901: First Republic (Malolos Republic) Edit

The First Philippine Republic was inaugurated on January 23, 1899 at Malolos, and ended on March 23, 1901 when President Emilio Aguinaldo was captured by the Americans at Palanan.

President of the First Philippine Republic (Malolos Republic) [1]
No.
overall
[note 1]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Prior office Took office Left office Party Term
[note 2]
Vice President Refs.
1 1 Emilio Aguinaldo
1869–1964
(Lived: 94 years)
President of the
Revolutionary Government
(1898–1899)
23 Jan 1899 23 Mar 1901
[note 3]
[note 4]
Non-partisan (1899)
1
(1899)
None
[note 5]
[14]
[15]

The Americans had already begun controlling areas not controlled by the First Republic after the Spanish cession. The President of the United States is represented first by military governors, then by civilian Governors-General up to 1935.

1935–46: Commonwealth Edit

The Commonwealth was inaugurated on November 15, 1935 at Manila, and ended upon independence on July 4, 1946.

Presidents of the Philippine Commonwealth [1]
No.
overall
[note 1]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Prior office Took office Left office Party Term
[note 2]
Vice President Refs.
2 1 Manuel L. Quezon
1878–1944
(Lived: 65 years)
Senator from the Fifth Senatorial District
and 1st President of the Senate
(1916–1935)
15 Nov 1935
[note 6]
1 Aug 1944
[note 7]
[note 8]
Nacionalista (1935)
2
(1935)
Sergio Osmeña [19]
[20]
[21]
[18]
(1941)
3
(1941)
(1944)
4
[note 9]
2 Sergio Osmeña
1878–1961
(Lived: 83 years)
1st
Vice President of the Philippines
(1935–1944)
1 Aug 1944 28 May 1946
[note 10]
[note 11]
Nacionalista Vacant
[note 12]
[22]
[23]
[18]
5 3 Manuel Roxas
1892–1948
(Lived: 56 years)
Senator
and 2nd President of the Senate
(1945–1946)
28 May 1946 15 Apr 1948 Liberal
[note 13]
(1946)
5
(1946)
[note 9]
Elpidio Quirino [26]
[27]
[24]

1943–45: Second Republic Edit

The Second Republic was inaugurated on October 14, 1943 in Manila, and ended when President Jose P. Laurel dissolved the republic on August 17, 1945, in Tokyo.

President of the Second Philippine Republic [1]
No.
overall
[note 1]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Prior office Took office Left office Party Term
[note 2]
Vice President Refs.
3 1 José P. Laurel
1891–1959
(Lived: 68 years)
10th & 17th
Minister of the Interior
(1922–1923 &
1942–1943)
14 Oct 1943
[note 14]
17 Aug 1945
[note 15]
[note 4]
KALIBAPI
[note 16]
(1943)
4
(1943)
None
[note 17]
[34]
[37]

1946–72: Third Republic Edit

The Third Republic started when independence was granted by the Americans on July 4, 1946, and ended upon the imposition of martial law by President Ferdinand Marcos on September 21, 1972.

Presidents of the Third Philippine Republic [1] [note 18]
No.
overall
[note 1]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Prior office Took office Left office Party Term
[note 2]
Vice President Refs.
5 1 Manuel Roxas
1892–1948
(Lived: 56 years)
Senator
and 2nd President of the Senate
(1945–1946)
28 May 1946 15 Apr 1948
[note 19]
Liberal
[note 13]
(1946)
5
(1946)
(1948)
Elpidio Quirino [26]
[27]
[24]
Vacant
April 15–17, 1948
[40]
6 2 Elpidio Quirino
1890–1956
(Lived: 65 years)
2nd
Vice President of the Philippines
(1946–1948)
17 Apr 1948 30 Dec 1953
[note 10]
Liberal
[note 20]
Vacant
[note 12]
17 Apr 1948–30 Dec 1949
[42]
[43]
[24]
[41]
(1949)
6
(1949)
Fernando Lopez
30 Dec 1949–30 Dec 1953
7 3 Ramon Magsaysay
1907–1957
(Lived: 49 years)
7th
Secretary of National Defense
(1950–1953)
30 Dec 1953 17 Mar 1957
[note 21]
Nacionalista (1953)
7
(1953)
(1957)
Carlos P. Garcia [46]
[47]
[48]
8 4 Carlos P. Garcia
1896–1971
(Lived: 74 years)
4th
Vice President of the Philippines
(1953–1957)
18 Mar 1957 30 Dec 1961
[note 10]
Nacionalista Vacant
[note 12]
18 Mar–
30 Dec 1957
[49]
[50]
[48]
[51]
(1957)
8
(1957)
Diosdado Macapagal
30 Dec 1957–30 Dec 1961
9 5 Diosdado Macapagal
1910–1997
(Lived: 86 years)
5th
Vice President of the Philippines
(1957–1961)
30 Dec 1961 30 Dec 1965
[note 10]
Liberal (1961)
9
(1961)
Emmanuel Pelaez [52]
[53]
[54]
10 6 Ferdinand Marcos
1917–1989
(Lived: 72 years)
Senator
(1959–1965)
and 11th President of the Senate
(1963–1965)
30 Dec 1965 25 Feb 1986
[note 10]
[note 22]
Nacionalista (1965)
10
(1965)
Fernando Lopez
30 Dec 1965–23 Sep 1972
[note 23]
[60]
[61]
[62]
[63]
[9]
(1969)
11
[note 24]
[note 25]
(1969)
None
[note 26]
23 Sep 1972–25 Feb 1986
KBL (1981)
12
[note 27]
(1981)

1972–87: Martial law and the Fourth Republic Edit

President Ferdinand Marcos ruled by decree when he declared martial law on September 21, 1972. He inaugurated the "New Society" after a new constitution was ratified on January 17, 1973. He declared the Fourth Republic on January 17, 1981, after martial law was lifted.

Presidents of the Fourth Philippine Republic [1] [note 28]
No.
overall
[note 1]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Prior office Took office Left office Party Term
[note 2]
Vice President Refs.
10 1 Ferdinand Marcos
1917–1989
(Lived: 72 years)
Senator
(1959–1965)
and 11th President of the Senate
(1963–1965)
30 Dec 1965 25 Feb 1986
[note 10]
[note 22]
Nacionalista (1965)
10
(1965)
Fernando Lopez
30 Dec 1965–23 Sep 1972
[note 23]
[60]
[61]
[62]
[63]
[9]
(1969)
11
[note 24]
[note 25]
(1969)
None
[note 26]
23 Sep 1972–25 Feb 1986
KBL (1981)
12
[note 27]
(1981)
11 2 Corazon Aquino
1933–2009
(Lived: 76 years)
none
(No prior elected office)
25 Feb 1986
[note 29]
30 Jun 1992 UNIDO (1986)
13
(1986)
Salvador Laurel [67]
[68]
[59]

1987–present: Fifth Republic Edit

President Corazon Aquino inaugurated the Fifth Republic after the present constitution was ratified. The plebiscite took place on February 2, 1987.


Readings

First: Isaiah 58: 7-10 - Share your bread with the hungry, shelter the homeless poor . your integrity will go before you . cry and the Lord will answer . your light will rise in the darkness.

Psalm 111 - The good man is a light in the darkness for the upright / The just man will never waver / With a steadfast heart he will no fear.

Second: I Corinthians 2: 1-5 - I came to tell you what God had guaranteed . the only knowledge I claimed to have was about Jesus, and only about him as the crucified Christ. . And I did this so your faith should not depend on human philosophy but on the power of God.

Gospel: Matthew 5: 13-16- You are the salt of the earth. But if salt becomes tasteless, what can make it salty again? . You are the light of the world: no one lights a lamp to put it under a tub, they put it on a lampstand to shine for all the household. Your light must shine in the sight of all.


In FTC Study, Five Percent of Consumers Had Errors on Their Credit Reports That Could Result in Less Favorable Terms for Loans

A Federal Trade Commission study of the U.S. credit reporting industry found that five percent of consumers had errors on one of their three major credit reports that could lead to them paying more for products such as auto loans and insurance.

Overall, the congressionally mandated study on credit report accuracy found that one in five consumers had an error on at least one of their three credit reports.

“These are eye-opening numbers for American consumers,” said Howard Shelanski, Director of the FTC’s Bureau of Economics. “The results of this first-of-its-kind study make it clear that consumers should check their credit reports regularly. If they don’t, they are potentially putting their pocketbooks at risk.”

The study, in which participants were encouraged to use the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) process to resolve any potential credit report errors, also found that:

  • One in four consumers identified errors on their credit reports that might affect their credit scores
  • One in five consumers had an error that was corrected by a credit reporting agency (CRA) after it was disputed, on at least one of their three credit reports
  • Four out of five consumers who filed disputes experienced some modification to their credit report
  • Slightly more than one in 10 consumers saw a change in their credit score after the CRAs modified errors on their credit report and
  • Approximately one in 20 consumers had a maximum score change of more than 25 points and only one in 250 consumers had a maximum score change of more than 100 points.

Other study results can be found in the executive summary of the report.

“Your credit report has information about your finances and your bill-paying history, so it’s important to make sure it’s accurate,” said Charles Harwood, Acting Director of the FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection. “The good news for consumers is that credit reports are free through annualcreditreport.com, and if you find an error, you can work with the credit reporting company to fix it.”

About the Study

The FTC report is the first major study that looks at all the primary groups that participate in the credit reporting and scoring process: consumers lenders/data furnishers (which include creditors, lenders, debt collection agencies, and the court system) the Fair Isaac Corporation, which develops FICO credit scores and the national credit reporting agencies (CRAs). It is based on work with 1,001 participants who reviewed 2,968 credit reports with a study associate who helped them identify and correct possible errors on their credit reports.

Consumers in the study were selected to match the demographic and credit score information of the general public, and participants were encouraged to dispute errors that could affect their credit standing. Credit reports with potential errors identified by study participants were sent to Fair Isaac (FICO) for rescoring.

After completing the FCRA dispute process, study participants were provided with new credit reports and credit scores. The original reports were then compared with the new reports. If any modifications were made as a result of the disputes, the impact of errors on the consumer’s credit score was determined.

Congress directed the FTC to conduct a study of credit report accuracy and provide interim reports every two years, starting in 2004 and continuing through 2012, with a final report in 2014. The reports are being produced under Section 319 of the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act, or FACT Act.

Information for Consumers

The FTC has a wide range of general information for consumers on credit reporting issues, including Free Credit Reports, Disputing Errors on Credit Reports, and Your Source for a Truly Free Credit Report? AnnualCreditReport.com, as well as a new consumer blog posted titled It Pays to Check Your Credit Report.

The Commission vote authorizing the staff to issue the report to Congress was 5-0, with former Commissioner J. Thomas Rosch participating. It is the fifth interim report to Congress describing the progress the agency has made on a national study examining the accuracy of credit reports.


Mv_deaths_per_100_per_by_age_19.gif

Source: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.

(1) Drivers over the age of 15. Includes motorcycle riders and restricted and graduated drivers license holders in some states.
(2) Includes drivers of unknown sex.
(3) Rate per 100,000 licensed drivers.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has developed a list of driver behaviors that are factors in fatal crashes. Speeding is at the top of the list of related factors for drivers involved in fatal crashes. In 2019, 8,746 drivers who were involved in fatal crashes (or 17 percent) were speeding. In addition, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) has found that rising state speed limits over the 25 years from 1993 to 2017 have cost nearly 37,000 lives, including more than 1,900 in 2017 alone. By 2021, 42 states had maximum speed limits of 70 mph or higher. On some portion of their roads, 22 states had maximum speed limits of 70 mph, and 11 states had maximum speed limits of 75 mph. Eight states had 80 mph limits, and drivers in Texas can legally drive 85 mph on one road, according to the IIHS. The IIHS says that as the crash speed increased from 40 mph to 56 mph in its tests, researchers found more structural damage and greater forces on the test dummy’s entire body. These increases in speed cancel out the safety benefits resulting from vehicle improvements like airbags and better structural design. By 56 mph, researchers from the IIHS, the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety and the manufacturer of the test dummies found that a head-on crash between two similar vehicles traveling at the same speed would result in severe brain and neck injury and likely result in leg fractures.

Ranking second was the influence of alcohol, drugs or medication, affecting 5,164 drivers, or 10 percent of all drivers involved in fatal crashes. Failure to yield the right of way, and failure to stay in the proper lane were cited as third and fourth, with a total of about 7,100 drivers, or almost 14 percent of all drivers in fatal crashes exhibiting these behaviors. Drivers operating a vehicle in a careless manner were the fifth most likely to be involved in a fatal crash (3,302 drivers or 6.5 percent of all drivers in fatal crashes).

(1) The sum of the numbers and percentages is greater than total drivers as more than one factor may be present for the same driver.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

(1) Includes 58 fatal crashes with unknown first harmful events.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Traffic fatalities spike during different periods.

  • In 2018 October had the most fatal crashes and February had the least, according to data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).
  • In 2018, about 50 percent of fatal crashes occurred on Friday, Saturday or Sunday, according to NHTSA.
  • The beginning of daylight savings is linked to an increase in auto accidents, according to an analysis by the University of British Columbia and studies by researchers at John Hopkins and Stanford University.
  • Crashes caused by drivers under the influence of drugs or alcohol are more prevalent around Christmas and New Year’s Day compared with Thanksgiving Day. Crashes on the days around Thanksgiving are concentrated around typical rush hours, according to researchers at the University of Alabama.
  • All holidays are generally a time of increased travel and traffic deaths. In 2018, Memorial Day was the holiday period with the most motor vehicle deaths (389), followed by Thanksgiving Day (385), Christmas Day (380), Labor Day (375), New Year’s Day (304) and Independence Day (152). See chart below.

(1) The length of the holiday period depends on the day of the week on which the holiday falls. Memorial Day and Labor Day are always 3.25 days Thanksgiving is always 4.25 days and New Year’s Day, Independence Day, and Christmas are 3.25 days if the holiday falls on Friday through Monday, 4.25 days if on Tuesday or Thursday, and 1.25 days if on Wednesday. See https://injuryfacts.nsc.org/motor-vehicle/holidays/holiday-introduction/ for more information.
(2) The highest blood alcohol concentration (BAC) among drivers or motorcycle riders involved in the crash was 0.08 grams per deciliter (g/dL) or higher (the legal definition of drunk driving in most states).

Source: National Safety Council based on National Highway Traffic Safety Administration data.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Activities that take drivers’ attention off the road, including talking or texting on cellphones, eating, talking with passengers, adjusting vehicle controls and other distractions, are a major safety threat. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) gauges distracted driving by collecting data on distraction-affected crashes, which focus on distractions that are most likely to result in crashes such as dialing a cellphone, texting or being distracted by another person or an outside event. In 2019, 3,142 people were killed in crashes involving distractions. There were 2,895 distraction-affected fatal crashes, accounting for 9 percent of all fatal crashes in the nation.

Most states have addressed the issue of using cellphones for talking and texting. According to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, as of December 2020, talking on a hand-held cellphone while driving is banned in 24 states and the District of Columbia. Text messaging is banned for all drivers in 48 states and the District of Columbia. Laws for novice drivers are even more restrictive: the use of all cellphones by novice drivers is restricted in 37 states and the District of Columbia, and drivers age 21 and younger are banned from texting in Missouri.

Despite laws enacted in most U.S. states designed to reduce using cellphones for text messaging and talking, driver distraction from cellphones remains a significant problem. In 2019, 41 percent of drivers were distracted by their phones during daytime driving, according to data from Cambridge Mobile Telematics, a global phone telematics company. This figure is higher than official statistics. An earlier study found that texting bans were not shown to reduce crash rates, according to a Highway Loss Data Institute 2010 study of collision claims patterns in California, Louisiana, Minnesota and Washington before and after texting bans went into effect. Collisions went up slightly in all the states, except Washington. A positive change was noted in a more recent study using data from hospital emergency departments in 16 states between 2007 and 2014 that found that states with texting bans had an average 4 percent reduction in emergency department visits after motor vehicle crashes, or about 1,600 visits per year. The results were issued in March 2019 in the American Journal of Public Health by authors from the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Texas A&M University School of Public Health and used data from 16 states, all but one having laws banning texting while driving.

Teen girls are twice as likely as teen boys to use cell phones and other electronic devices while driving, according to a March, 2012 study by the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

  • Distraction was a factor in 9 percent of fatal crashes reported in 2019.
  • Cellphone use was a factor in 13 percent of all fatal distraction-affected crashes, but in only 1.0 percent of the 33,244 fatal crashes reported in 2019.

In November 2020, the U.S. Department of Transportation issued its Pedestrian Safety Action Plan in response to the growing number of pedestrian fatalities. It showed that from 2010 to 2019, total traffic fatalities grew 9 percent but pedestrian traffic fatalities rose 44 percent, from 4,302 to 6,205. Pedestrian traffic fatalities were 13 percent of all traffic fatalities in 2010 and by 2019 that proportion grew to 17 percent. Most fatalities occur in urban areas, 81 percent in 2018. The comprehensive plan includes a number of initiatives focused on reducing the number of pedestrian deaths to be implemented by the Federal Highway Administration and NHTSA. Programs expected to be set up in the near term include those that enhance public education, improve pedestrian crossings, improve lighting, set appropriate speed limits. In years to come, the agencies would continue to do more planning by studying the use of automated driving technologies, and improve infrastructure.

The increase in the number of pedestrian fatalities has occurred because state and local transportation agencies prioritize motorist speed and avoiding delay over pedestrian safety, according to Smart Growth America, a nonprofit organization promoting smart growth strategies. The organization’s research shows that older adults, people of color, and people walking in low-income communities are at higher risk for being involved in pedestrian crashes. Its analysis of crashes that occurred between 2010 and 2019 from NHTSA’s Fatal Analysis Reporting System shows that three of the top five metropolitan statistical areas most dangerous and deadly for pedestrians were in Florida—Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, ranking first, Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, ranking fourth and Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond ranking fifth. Ranking second and third were Bakersfield, California and Memphis, Tennessee-Missouri-Arkansas. The rankings were based on the organization’s Pedestrian Danger Index which factored in the number of pedestrians struck and killed by drivers based on population and people who walk in the area. By state the top five ranked by the index were Florida, Alabama, New Mexico, Mississippi and Delaware.

In 2018, 33 percent of fatal pedestrian crashes involved a pedestrian with blood-alcohol content (BAC) of 0.08 grams per deciliter or higher, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). A BAC of 0.08 grams per deciliter is the legal limit for alcohol impairment in all states except Utah, which has a threshold of 0.05 grams per deciliter. In 2018, 17 percent of fatal pedestrian crashes involved a driver with a BAC of 0.08 or higher.

Although pedestrian deaths fell in 2019, the latest year of final data, they are on the rise again. In 2019, NHTSA reported that 6,205 pedestrians were killed in traffic crashes, down 2.7 percent from the 6,374 pedestrians killed in 2018. A May 2021 report from the Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA) shows that in 2020, based on preliminary data, pedestrian fatalities rose 4.8 percent to 6,721 from 6,412 in 2019. The association’s calculations found that pedestrian fatalities rose in 31 states and the District of Columbia while 19 states had decreases. These increases occurred despite the COVID-19 pandemic-related decline in vehicle miles traveled of 13.2 percent in 2020. The pedestrian fatality rate, measured by one billion vehicle miles traveled, rose to 2.30 from 1.90 in 2019, a 21 percent increase. The GHSA notes that this rate of increase is the largest since records were first kept in 1975. The GHSA’s methodology for computing fatalities differs from NHTSA, accounting for the different fatality number in 2019.


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