Review: Volume 4 - 19th Century History

Review: Volume 4 - 19th Century History

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Led by Erasmus Darwin (grandfather of Charles Darwin), the Lunar Society of Birmingham were a group of eighteenth-century amateur experimenters who met monthly on the Monday night nearest to the full moon. Echoing to the thud of pistons and the wheeze of snorting engines, Jenny Uglow's vivid and swarming group portrait brings to life the inventors, artisans and tycoons who shaped and fired the modern world. The group included James Watt; Josiah Wedgewood; Joseph Priestley and Matthew Boulton.

In the 1880s, fashionable Londoners left their elegant homes and clubs in Mayfair and Belgravia and crowded into omnibuses bound for midnight tours of the slums of East London. A new word burst into popular usage to describe these descents into the precincts of poverty to see how the poor lived: slumming. In this captivating book, Seth Koven paints a vivid portrait of the practitioners of slumming and their world: who they were, why they went, what they claimed to have found, how it changed them, and how slumming, in turn, powerfully shaped both Victorian and twentieth-century understandings of poverty and social welfare, gender relations, and sexuality. The slums of late-Victorian London became synonymous with all that was wrong with industrial capitalist society. But for philanthropic men and women eager to free themselves from the starched conventions of bourgeois respectability and domesticity, slums were also places of personal liberation and experimentation. Slumming allowed them to act on their irresistible "attraction of repulsion" for the poor and permitted them, with society's approval, to get dirty and express their own "dirty" desires for intimacy with slum dwellers and, sometimes, with one another. "Slumming" elucidates the histories of a wide range of preoccupations about poverty and urban life, altruism and sexuality that remain central in Anglo-American culture, including the ethics of undercover investigative reporting, the connections between cross-class sympathy and same-sex desire, and the intermingling of the wish to rescue the poor with the impulse to eroticize and sexually exploit them. By revealing the extent to which politics and erotics, social and sexual categories overflowed their boundaries and transformed one another, Koven recaptures the ethical dilemmas that men and women confronted - and continue to confront - in trying to "love thy neighbor as thyself."

This book exposes the 'hidden' history of marital violence and explores its place in English family life between the Restoration and the mid-nineteenth century. In a time before divorce was easily available and when husbands were popularly believed to have the right to beat their wives, Elizabeth Foyster examines the variety of ways in which men, women and children responded to marital violence. For contemporaries this was an issue that raised central questions about family life: the extent of men's authority over other family members, the limitations of women's property rights, and the problems of access to divorce and child custody. Opinion about the legitimacy of marital violence continued to be divided but by the nineteenth century ideas about what was intolerable or cruel violence had changed significantly. This accessible study will be invaluable reading for anyone interested in gender studies, feminism, social history and family history.

Many of the sports that have spread across the world, from athletics and boxing to golf and tennis, had their origins in nineteenth-century Britain. They were exported around the world by the British Empire, and Britain's influence in the world led to many of its sports being adopted in other countries. The Victorians and Sport is a highly readable account of the role sport played in both Victorian Britain and its empire. Major sports attracted mass followings and were widely reported in the press. Great sporting celebrities, such as the cricketer Dr W.G. Grace, were the best-known people in the country, and sporting rivalries provoked strong loyalties and passionate emotions. Mike Huggins provides fascinating details of individual sports and sportsmen. He also shows how sport was an important part of society and of many people's lives.

À La Carte Projects

What better way to make learning fun than with hands-on activities! Choose from a variety of projects that include creative writing, 3-dimensional and authentic crafting, games, timelines, lap booking, and so much more! Check back often, as new projects are added regularly!

ALC-1054: The Penny Rug Notebook/3D Project

There are few symbols of American thriftiness as mesmerizingly beautiful as a penny rug. This project helps you create your own penny rug (whether it's a 2D version on paper or the real thing itself) and gives you a little taste of one of the simpler things in life during.

ALC-1053: Native Story Bag Lap Book Project

Native Americans played a central role in the early years of American history. The Native Story Bag project helps take a look at a number of the most famous of these figures and events, from Sacagawea to the Trail of Tears. Dive in and learn about one of the most.

ALC-1052: The Trip West in a Covered Wagon Lap Book/Notebook Project

Have you ever wondered what it took to travel the Oregon Trail or any of the other western trails during the early 19th century in America? This lap book project helps shed some light on just how much preparation went into the ordeal, not to mention an extra wagon load.

ALC-1051: The Lewis & Clark Expedition Lap Book Project

There are few characters as iconic to a young United States as Lewis and Clark. This fun lap book project uses a handful of printables to dive into a quick overview of just what these two explorers and their fearless crew did to help open up new frontiers and sew.

ALC-1050: Science, Invention, and Mathematicians Timeline

Where would we be without so many scientific and mathematical discoveries and inventions? Have you ever wondered who many of the people were that have brought us progress in fields such as space, medicine, agriculture, technology, and SO much more? This timeline captures 120 people, inventions, and events in history.

ALC-1041: American History Newspaper Collection

Capture history in headlines, from the discovery of the New World right up into the 20th Century in America! With the American History creative writing newspaper collection, you can have your students review their American history studies while practicing their creative writing skills at the same time! The seven newspapers.

ALC-1039: The Industrial Times Newspaper & Grocery Sales Flyer

With The Industrial Times creative writing newspaper, you can have your students review their late 19th and early 20th century history studies while practicing their creative writing skills at the same time! The newspaper provides article and advertisement headlines (including a Grocery Sales Flyer!) leaving it to the students to.

Review: Volume 4 - 19th Century History - History

The American Historical Review - October 1999
Reviews of Books: Canada and the United States

Review of Albert Boime's
"The Unveiling of the National Icons:
A Plea for Patriotic Iconoclasm in a Nationalist Era"
By David Glassberg, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Click here to read. (2 pages)

Canadian Journal of History -December 1988

Review of Albert Boime's
"A Social History of Modern Art. Vol. 1, Art in an Age of Revolution"
By Pat Anderson, University of British Columbia
Click here to read. (2 pages)

The New York Times - Sunday Book Review, October 4, 1998

Review of Albert Boime's
"The Unveiling of the National Icons:
A Plea for Patriotic Iconoclasm in a Nationalist Era"

The European Legacy - September 1998

Review of Albert Boime's
"Art of the French Commune: Imagining Paris After War and Revolution"
By Timothy Baycroft, University of Sheffield, U.K.
Click here to read. (2 pages)

History Magazine - January 1997

Reviews and short notices: Late modern
Review of Albert Boime's
"Art and the French Commune: Imagining Paris after War and Revolution"
By Frank Field, Keele University
Click here to read. (2 pages)

The Journal of Modern History - June 1997, Vol. 69, Issue 2

Review of Albert Boime's
"Art and the French Commune: Imagining Paris after War and Revolution"
By John Hutton, Trinity University
Click here to read. (5 pages)

Journal of European Studies - September 1997

Review of Albert Boime's
"Art and the French Commune. Imagining Paris After War and Revolution"
By Robert Lethbridge

Nineteenth-Century French Studies 1996-1997

The American Historical Review - October 1996
Reviews of books: Modern Europe

Review of Albert Boime's
"Art and the French Commune: Imagining Paris after War and Revolution"
By Gay L. Gullickson, University of Maryland, College Park
Click here to read. (2 pages)

Canadian Journal of History - August 1996

Review of Albert Boime's
"Art and the French Commune: Imagining Paris After War and Revolution"
(in French)
By David Karel, Université Laval
Click here to read. (2 pages)

The Art Bulletin - March 1996

Review of Albert Boime's
"Art and the French Commune: Imagining Paris after War and Revolution"
By Jane Mayo Roos
Department of Art, Hunter College, City University of New York
Click here to read. (5 pages)

Marxist Review (London), February 1996

The British Journal of Aesthetics - July 1995, Vol. 35 Issue 3

Review of Albert Boime's
"The Art of the Macchia and the Risorgimento:
Representing Culture and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Italy"
By Kate Flint

The Burlington Magazine - April 1995

Oxford Art Journal - No. 2, 1994

The American Historical Review - October 1994
Reviews of books: Modern Europe

Review of Albert Boime's
"The Art of the Macchia and the Risorgimento:
Representing Culture and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Italy"
By Richard Drake, University of Montana
Click here to read. (1 page)

The Times Literary Supplement - August 6, 1993

The Journal of Interdisciplinary History -Spring 1993, Vol. 23 Issue 4

"The Magisterial Gaze:
Manifest Destiny and American Landscape Painting 1830-1865"
By Elizabeth Johns

Pacific Historical Review -May 1993, Vol. 62 Issue 2

Review of Albert Boime's
"The Magisterial Gaze:
Manifest Destiny and American Landscape Painting 1830-1865"

By Robert V. Hine

Art Journal, Winter 1992 Vol. 51 Issue 4

19th-Century American painting
Review of Albert Boime's
"The Magisterial Gaze:
Manifest Destiny and American Landscape Painting 1830-1865"

By David Tatham, Professor of Fine Arts, Syracuse University
Click here to read. (2 pages)

Nineteenth-Century French Studies Fall/Winter 1992-1993

Journal of European Studies - 1992

Nineteenth-Century French Studies Fall/Winter 1991-1992

Review d"Art Magazine - No. 91, 1991

The American Historical Review - Apr. 1991

Review of Albert Boime's
"A Social Historyof Modern Art. Vol. 1, Art in an Age of Revolution"
By Robert J. Bezucha, Amherst College
Click here to read. (2 pages)

Art in America - December 1990

Journal of Social History - November 1990

Review of Albert Boime's
"A Social History of Modern Art. Vol. 1, Art in an Age of Revolution"
By Barbara Day, Temple University
Click here to read. (2 pages)

The Journal of Modern History - September 1990

Review of Albert Boime's
"A Social History of Modern Art. Vol. 1, Art in an Age of Revolution"
By Philippe Bordes,Musée de La revolution Française, Vizille
Click here to read. (3 pages)

The New York review of books - September 27, 1990

Painting the unpaintable
Review of Albert Boime's
"The Art of Exclusion: Representing Blacks in the Nineteenth Century"
By Richard Dorment, Art Critic of the Daily Telegraph
Click here to read. (9 pages)

Southwest Art Magazine - July 1990

The Louisiana Weekly - July 28, 1990

The Gainesville Sun - May 13, 1990

Eighteenth-Century Studies
An art Journal published by the John Hopkins University Press
Summer 1989

Art in America - December 1989
Loaded images
By S. Schama

The American Historical Review - December 1989

Review of Albert Boime's
"Hollow Icons: The Politics of Sculpture in Nineteenth-Century France"
By William B. Cohen, Indiana University
Click here to read. (2 pages)

Apollo – The International Magazine of Art - September 1989

Art History Magazine - December 1988

Art According to Boime
Review of Albert Boime's
"A Social History of Modern Art. Vol. 1, Art in an Age of Revolution"
By Charles Saumarez Smith, Victoria and Albert Museum
Click here to read. (4 pages)

Contemporary Sociology - September 1988

Review of Albert Boime's
"A Social History of Modern Art: Vol. 1 Art in an Age of Revolution"
By Karen A. Cerulo

William Hogarth: Hogarth's servant's, Mid-1750s, Tate Gallery.
(Reproduced in Albert Boime's Art in an Age of Revolution, 1750- 1800.)

Social History of Art
Review of Albert Boime's
Art in the age of Revolution, 1750-1800
By Philip Conisbee, Assistant curator of European paintings at the
Boston Museum of Fine Arts
Click here to read. (2 pages)

Nineteenth-Century French Studies – Fall/Winter 1987-1988

Umení - Czech Art Magazine, 1983
(Lengthy review of Professor Boime's publications)

Nineteenth-Century French Studies – Fall/Winter 1982-1983

Pantheon - German art periodical January-March 1982

The American Historical Review - Vol. 86, October 1981

Oxford Art Journal - July 1981

The British Journal of Aesthetics - Summer 1981

Art in America - February 1981

Art in America - December 1980

The New Republic - November 29, 1980

The Burlington Magazine - November 1980

Art News Magazine - November 1980

The New York Times - Sunday Book Review, September 14, 1980

Two Painters
Review of Albert Boime's
"Thomas Couture and the Eclectic Vision"
By John Russel, New York Times Art Critic
Click here to read. (2 pages)

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20th century [ edit | edit source ]

In Denmark wind power was an important part of a decentralized electrification in the first quarter of the 20th century, partly because of Poul la Cour from his first practical development in 1891 at Askov. In 1956 Johannes Juul installed a 24 m diameter wind turbine at Gedser, which ran from 1956 until 1967. This was a three-bladed, horizontal-axis, upwind, stall-regulated turbine similar to those now used for commercial wind power development. ⎖]

In 1927 the brothers Joe Jacobs and Marcellus Jacobs opened a factory, Jacobs Wind in Minneapolis to produce wind turbine generators for farm use. These would typically be used for lighting or battery charging, on farms out of reach of sentral-station electricity and distribution lines. In 30 years the firm produced about 30,000 small wind turbines, some of which ran for many years in remote locations in Africa and on the Richard Evelyn Byrd expedition to Antarctica. ⎗] Many other manufacturers produced small wind turbine sets for the same market, including companies called Wincharger, Miller Airlite, Universal Aeroelectric, Paris-Dunn, Airline and Winpower.

1931: The darrieus wind turbine is invented. Turbines no longer have to be turned into the wind, and the axle can be one and the same as the tower.

By the 1930s windmills were widely used to generate electricity on farms in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed. Used to replenish battery storage banks, these machines typically had generating capacities of a few hundred watts to several kilowatts. Beside providing farm power, they were also used for isolated applications such as electrifying bridge structures to prevent corrosion. In this period, high tensile steel was cheap, and windmills were placed atop prefabricated open steel lattice towers.

The most widely-used small wind generator produced for American farms in the 1930s was a two-bladed horizontal-axis machine manufactured by the Wincharger Corporation. It had a peak output of 200 watts. Blade speed was regulated by curved air brakes near the hub that deployed at excessive rotational velocities. These machines were still being manufactured in the United States during the 1980s. In 1936, the U.S. started a rural electrification project that killed the natural market for wind-generated power, since network power distribution provided a farm with more dependable usable energy for a given amount of capital investment.

A forerunner of modern horizontal-axis wind generators was in service at Yalta, USSR in 1931. This was a 100 kW generator on a 30 m (100 ft) tower, connected to the local 6.3 kV distribution system. It was reported to have an annual load factor of 32 per cent, ⎘] not much different from current wind machines.

The world's first megawatt-size wind turbine on Grandpa's Knob, Castleton, Vermont

In 1941 the world's first megawatt-size wind turbine was connected to the local electrical distribution system on Grandpa's Knob in Castleton, Vermont, USA. It was designed by Palmer Cosslett Putnam and manufacturered by the S. Morgan Smith Company. This 1.25 MW Smith-Putnam turbine operated for 1100 hours before a blade failed at a known weak point, which had not been reinforced due to war-time material shortages.

During the Second World War, small wind generators were used on German U-boats to recharge submarine batteries as a fuel-conserving measure.

Experimental wind turbine at Nogent-le-Roi, France, 1955

The Station d'Etude de l'Energie du Vent at Nogent-le-Roi in France operated an experimental 800 KVA wind turbine from 1956 to 1966. ⎙]

In Australia, the Dunlite Corporation built hundreds of small wind generators to provide power at isolated postal service stations. Manufacture of these machines persisted into the 1970s.

In the 1970s many people began to desire a self-sufficient life-style. Solar cells were too expensive for small-scale electrical generation, so some turned to windmills. At first they built ad-hoc designs using wood and automobile parts. Most people discovered that a reliable wind generator is a moderately complex engineering project, well beyond the ability of most romantics. Some began to search for and rebuild farm wind generators from the 1930s, of which Jacobs Wind Electric Company machines were especially sought after. Hundreds of Jacobs machines were reconditioned and sold during the 1970s.

The NASA/DOE 7.5 megawatt Mod-2 three turbine cluster in Goodnoe Hills, Washington in 1981

From the mid 1970's through the mid 1980's the United States government worked with industry to advance the technology and enable large commercial wind turbines. This effort was led by NASA at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio and was an extraordinarily successful government research and development activity. With funding from the National Science Foundation and later the United States Department of Energy (DOE), a total of 13 experimental wind turbines were put into operation including four major wind turbine designs. This research and development program pioneered many of the multi-megawatt turbine technologies in use today, including: steel tube towers, variable-speed generators, composite blade materials, partial-span pitch control, as well as aerodynamic, structural, and acoustic engineering design capabilities. The large wind turbines developed under this effort set several world records for diameter and power output. The Mod-2 wind turbine cluster produced a total of 7.5 megawatt of power in 1981. In 1987, the Mod-5B was the largest single wind turbine operating in the world with a rotor diameter of nearly 100 meters and a rated power of 3.2 megawatts. It demonstrated an availability of 95 percent, an unparalleled level for a new first-unit wind turbine. The Mod-5B had the first large-scale variable speed drive train and a sectioned, two-blade rotor that enabled easy transport of the blades.

Following experience with reconditioned 1930s wind turbines, a new generation of American manufacturers started building and selling small wind turbines not only for battery-charging but also for interconnection to electricity networks. An early example would be Enertech Corporation of Norwich, Vermont, which began building 1.8 kW models in the early 1980s.

Later, in the 1980s, California provided tax rebates for ecologically harmless power. These rebates funded the first major use of wind power for utility electricity. These machines, gathered in large wind parks such as at Altamont Pass would be considered small and un-economic by modern wind power development standards.

In the 1990s, as aesthetics and durability became more important, turbines were placed atop steel or reinforced concrete towers. Small generators are connected to the tower on the ground, then the tower is raised into position. Larger generators are hoisted into position atop the tower and there is a ladder or staircase inside the tower to allow technicians to reach and maintain the generator.

Originally wind generators were built right next to where their power was needed. With the availability of long distance electric power transmission, wind generators are now often on wind farms in windy locations and huge ones are being built offshore, sometimes transmitting power back to land using high voltage submarine cable. Since wind turbines are a renewable means of generating electricity, they are being widely deployed, but their cost is often subsidised by taxpayers, either directly or through renewable energy credits. (By comparison, fossil fuels also may receive direct subsidies, along with indirect subsidies in the form of taxpayer support for external costs such as disability payments for coal miners, pollution which can increase health care costs, military spending to protect oilfields, etc.) Much depends on the cost of alternative sources of electricity, and on whether governments choose to internalize the external costs of various energy sources by taxing their consumption. Wind generator cost per unit power has been decreasing by about four percent per year, due largely to improved technology, the accumulating experience of wind farm operators, and the trend toward ever-larger wind turbines. In the meantime, fossil fuel costs have tended to increase, especially for petroleum and natural gas.

Lot of four 19th century travel books - 4 volumes - 1850/1893

1. "Pictures of Travel in the South of France ", by Alexander Dumas - National Illustrated Library. London - 1850 first edition - 301p, 12cmx10cm - In good condition Spine slightly faded. Covers part faded, slightly chipped head of spine. Mild foxing to edges. Occasional foxing spots inside. Small name inscription front endpaper. Else a clean and tight copy.

2. "The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne in the County of Southampton.", by Gilbert White - Swan Sonnenschein, London - 1887 edition - With decorative title-vignette and 60 engraved illustrations and facsimiles in the text 305p, 14cmx12cm - good copy with some wear.

3. "In Remembrance Of The World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago" - Zum Andenken En Memoire, Chicago - 1893 first edition - 20cmx16cm 20p - 19 photo views by the Louis Glaser Process, some pages with multiple images --views of buildings, bird’s eye view of World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893, and 2 portraits. Pictures in Concertina Format All captions in English, German, French, and Spanish. Original red cloth, cover gilt stamped. A few lower fore-edges a little nicked. First section of Concertina separated. Covers a little darkened.

John Constable

John Constable, The Haywain, oil on canvas, 1821

Constable was born in East Bergholt, Suffolk and was largely self-taught. As a result, he developed slowly as an artist. While most landscapists of the day travelled extensively in search of picturesque or sublime scenery, Constable never left England. He had many children and his wife died he had financial troubles and stayed close to home to take care of his family. By 1800 he was a student at the Royal Academy schools but only began exhibiting in 1802 at the Royal Academy in London. His paintings were not well respected in Britain, even as Romantic Landscape painting was becoming popular. But later at the Paris Salon (where his British Landscape won the gold medal). He later influenced the Barbizon School, the French Romantic movement, and the Impressionists.

Studying the English painter John Constable is helpful in understanding the changing meaning of nature during the industrial revolution. He is, in fact, largely responsible for reviving the importance of landscape painting in the 19th century. A key event, when it is remembered that landscape would become the primary subject of the Impressionists later in the century.

Landscape had had a brief moment of glory amongst the Dutch masters of the 17th century. Ruisdael and others had devoted large canvases to the depiction of the low countries. But in the 18th century hierarchy of subject matter, landscape was nearly the lowest type of painting. Only the still-life was considered less important. This would change in the first decades of the 19th century when Constable began to depict his father’s farm on oversized six-foot long canvases. These “six-footers” as they are called, challenged the status quo. Here landscape was presented on the scale of history painting.

Why would Constable take such a bold step, and perhaps more to the point, why were his canvases celebrated (and they were, by no less important a figure than Eugène Delacroix, when Constable’s The Hay Wain was exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1824)?

The Hay Wain does include an element of genre (the depiction of a common scene), that is the farm hand taking his horse and wagon (or wain) across the stream. But this action is minor and seems to offer the viewer the barest of pretenses for what is virtually a pure landscape. Unlike the later Impressionists, Constable’s large polished canvases were painted in his studio.
He did, however, sketch outside, directly before his subject. This was necessary for Constable as he sought a high degree of accuracy in many specifics. For instance, the wagon and tack (harness, etc.) are all clearly and specifically depicted, The trees are identifiable by species, and Constable was the first artist we know of who studied meteorology so that the clouds and the atmospheric conditions that he rendered were scientifically precise.

Constable was clearly the product of the Age of Enlightenment and its increasing confidence in science. But Constable was also deeply influenced by the social and economic impact of the industrial revolution.

Prior to the 19th century, even the largest European cities counted their populations only in the hundreds of thousands. These were mere towns by today’s standards. But this would change rapidly. The world’s economies had always been based largely on agriculture. Farming was a labour intensive enterprise and the result was that the vast majority of the population lived in rural communities. The industrial revolution would reverse this ancient pattern of population distribution. Industrial efficiencies meant widespread unemployment in the country and the great migration to the cities began. The cities of London, Manchester, Paris, and New York doubled and doubled again in the 19th century. Imagine the stresses on a modern day New York if we had even a modest increase in population and the stresses of the 19th century become clear.

Industrialization remade virtually every aspect of society. Based on the political, technological and scientific advances of the Age of Enlightenment, blessed with a bountiful supply of the inexpensive albeit filthy fuel, coal, and advances in metallurgy and steam power, the northwestern nations of Europe invented the world that we now know in the West. Urban culture, expectations of leisure, and middle class affluence in general all resulted from these changes. But the transition was brutal for the poor. Housing was miserable, unventilated and often dangerously hot in the summer. Unclean water spread disease rapidly and there was minimal health care. Corruption was high, pay was low and hours inhumane.

What effect did these changes have on the ways in which the countryside was understood? Can these changes be linked to Constable’s attention to the countryside? Some art historians have suggested that Constable was indeed responding to such shifts. As the cities and their problems grew, the urban elite, those that had grown rich from an industrial economy, began to look to the countryside not as a place so wretched with poverty that thousands were fleeing for an uncertain future in the city, but rather as an idealized vision.

The rural landscape became a lost Eden, a place of one’s childhood, where the good air and water, the open spaces and hard and honest work of farm labour created a moral open space that contrasted sharply with the perceived evils of modern urban life. Constable’s art then functions as an expression of the increasing importance of rural life, at least from the perspective of the wealthy urban elite for whom these canvases were intended. The Hay Wain is a celebration of a simpler time, a precious and moral place lost to the city dweller.

Excerpted and adapted from: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker, “Constable and the English landscape,” in Smarthistory, August 9, 2015,
All Smarthistory content is available for free at

A Disabled Identity

Peter White on the birth of a modern disabled identity, via some extraordinary 19th-century women, blind but independent. From June 2013.

In the final part of his series, Peter White reveals the birth of a modern disabled identity in the 19th century - through the lives of some extraordinary independent blind women.

Peter says, 'I'm used to people describing me as disabled. Fair enough, I can't see. But I do wonder sometimes whether putting me into a disabled category really makes much sense. Some of my best friends use wheelchairs, but the truth is our needs could hardly be more different. I fall over them, they run over me! But over the last 40 years, disabled people have needed a collective identity to make change possible, to break down discrimination in jobs, transport, in people's attitudes generally.

People have tended to think that this sense of collective identity in Britain began after the First World War, when so many men returned with very visible injuries. But the evidence I've uncovered making this series reveals it to have begun much earlier.

This evidence comes from new research into the lives of blind women in the 19th century. We hear the stories of two extraordinary women who fought the conventions of their time, Adele Husson and Hippolyte van Lendegem. Independent, critical, angry - their voices are very modern, and research into their lives challenges accepted wisdom about the history of the disability movement.

With historians Selina Mills, David Turner and Julie Anderson, and readings by Emily Bevan and Madeleine Brolly.

Producer: Elizabeth Burke
Academic adviser: David Turner of Swansea University
A Loftus production for BBC Radio 4.

History of Dentistry – Part 4 – 19th Century

“Waterloo teeth” is probably not an expression many of us, thankfully, have ever heard of. Relating to the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, poor dead soldiers were relieved of their teeth which were then placed into dentures. In fact, these teeth were typically removed from healthy young men, which was an upgrade from previous teeth which might be degraded or even have a transmissible bacterial infection. While most people disapproved of such practices, it didn’t stop soldiers from pilfering ivories during the Crimean and American Civil Wars – until porcelain, vulcanite, and other materials were manufactured, which let poor soldiers rest peacefully – and intact.

An 1827 engraving by Louis Leopold Boilly, entitled “The Steel Balm.”

The First Dental School
It was during that period of time that there was a movement to establish dentistry as a real profession. Chapin Harris and Horace Hayden from the University of Maryland Medical School petitioned their school to make a dentistry department. At the time, there were no dental clinics. Dentists tended to get hands-on practice at other dentists’ offices. Their university declined their request, so Harris and Hayden moved to Maryland General Assembly to found the first dental school in 1840. It was called the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery.
Other dental schools were also being founded in the country. The first dental school connected to a university was that at Harvard University in 1867. It wasn’t until 1868 that licensure began in the states of New York, Ohio, and Kentucky.
More Denture Advances
In 1839, Charles Goodyear invented the vulcanization process for hardening rubber. Vulcanite was a cheap material that could be shaped to the mouth. It made a good base for false teeth and was quickly embraced by dentists. Unfortunately, as the molding process for vulcanite dentures was patented, the dental community fought the extravagant fees for the next twenty-five years.

An upper set of dentures made from human teeth set into a carved ivory base, circa 1850-1870. Via Canada’s Museum of Healthcare.

Anesthesia (Finally!)
In 1844, a Connecticut dentist called Horace Wells discovered that he could use nitrous oxide as an anesthesia. He used it successfully for a number of extractions in his practice. Although he attempted to use it in a public demonstration in 1845, apparently the patient cried out during the operation, so it was considered to be a failure. A year later, William Morton, a dentist and student of Wells, publically demonstrated the effectiveness of ether as an anesthetic during an operation. And even Queen Victoria popularized anesthetics when she used chloroform to deliver her eighth child in 1853.
No More Tooth Worms!
The dentist Willoughby Dayton Miller published The Micro-organisms of the Human Mouth in 1890. He took the ideas of Pierre Fauchard a step further. He discovered that dental caries were actually the results of bacterial activity. This would permanently change how dentists actually understood tooth decay. Furthermore, it activated a huge interest in oral hygiene and started a worldwide movement to promote regular tooth brushing and flossing.
As you can see, dentistry has come a long way from the days of bloodletting and dental “keys.” Stay tuned for 20th century developments, especially the advancement of oral hygiene and dental hygienists.

Making Scrapbooks of Popular Prints in the 1790s

“Portrait of a Christ’s Hospital Boy” painted by Margaret Carpenter (1793-1872).

William Pitt Scargill (1787-1836), turned occasional writer and novelist after a twenty-year career as a Unitarian minister. He tried his hand at a children’s book once with Recollections of a Blue-Coat Boy, or A View of Christ’s Hospital (1829). Usually designated a novel, it is actually a non-fiction work in the form of a dialogue between a father, who attended Christ’s Hospital in London, and his two sons, eager to hear stories about his school days there—the games boys played, the meanest teacher he had, what they ate, how strict were the rules, etc. The book is stuffed with information about those topics (and others) based partly on Scargill’s memories of his time as a pupil or Blue-coat boy between 1794 and 1802.

One passage describes about a pastime that might interest boys because the narrator was pretty sure it was not done any more: collecting cheap half-penny prints, cutting them up, and pasting the cut-out images in rows in a book. Pictures of farming were considered the most desirable and the boys competed to get the best ones for their collections. No reason is given why the boys would put down their pocket money to possess teeny-tiny pictures of agriculture, but apparently they coveted them more than those of military subjects, hunting, race horses, street vendors and performers or the rude caricatures of social types.

An intact half-penny Bowles & Carver lottery print.

The school boys were purchasing and trading a kind of catchpenny print, known as a lottery, easy to identify from the format, a grid whose boxes are filled with a miscellaneous variety of pictures. The print seller Robert Sayer advertised in 1775 his stock of 500 different designs that consisted of “men women, birds, beasts, and flowers “chiefly intended for children to play with.” Lotteries, it seems, were supposed to be used up in an entertaining activity, much like a coloring or drawing book.

A detail from a Bowles & Carver print that would have pleased the schoolboy who wanted military subjects.

Scargill’s delightful account in its entirety follows, illustrated with facsimiles of Bowles & Carver lotteries reprinted in Catchpenny Prints: 163 Popular Engravings from the Eighteenth Century (Dover, 1970).

Events and items in the collection of Cotsen Children's Library presented by the curatorial staff.

Watch the video: Μυθολογία: Η πρώιμη ιστορία Μαρία Παπαθανασίου


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