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27 June 1942
German troops advance to Mersa Matruh
War at Sea
Convoy PQ-17 leaves Iceland heading for Soviet Union
The Cleveland Press Collection
Cleveland Press Editor Louis B. Seltzer in front of Press building, 1960.
Cleveland Press City Room circa 1959.
Man standing in front of Press's horse-drawn carriages.
Press carriers outside of Barlow Agency in 1898.
Front page of last issue of Cleveland Press, 1982.
Comprised of hundreds of thousands of clippings and photographs, The Cleveland Press Collection is the former editorial library, or "morgue," of The Cleveland Press and is now part of Cleveland State University Library's Special Collections. The last of Cleveland's daily afternoon newspapers, The Cleveland Press was published from 1878 until 1982.
The collection was donated to the CSU Library in 1984 by the newspaper's owner, Joseph E. Cole, who was then a CSU Trustee. Though little survives from the first half-century, the collection's coverage of local and national history gets progressively stronger after 1920.
Presently only a very small percentage of the approximately half million 8x10 black and white photographs and one million news clippings have been digitized and are available for you to search or browse. We are continuing to increase this number as time and volunteer help permits.
On September 22, 1922, Philip&aposs uncle, King Constantine I of Greece, was forced to abdicate the throne. The military government arrested Prince Andrew, and in December, a revolutionary court banished him from Greece for life. Philip&aposs family went to France, where they settled in the Paris suburb of Saint-Cloud. Philip&aposs mother was eventually committed to a psychiatric institution while his father relocated to the south of France, maintaining limited contact with the rest of the family.
Philip attended the MacJannet American School before he was sent to the United Kingdom to study at the Cheam School. During the 1930s, he relocated to a school in Germany and then moved again to Scotland&aposs Gordonstoun School, founded by Jewish headmaster Kurt Hahn following the rise of the Nazi party. Many of Philip&aposs family members remained in Germany, including his sisters, who married into German aristocratic circles.
After graduating in 1939, Philip attended the Royal Naval College, where he excelled. During World War II, he served in the British Navy while in-law family members were on the opposing Axis side of the conflict.
Decade by Decade: Major Events in Women’s History
In honor of women's history month, we have chosen one significant event from each decade over the past century. Each event recognizes the achievements of women in all facets of life who moved history forward:
1903: Marie Curie becomes the first woman to receive Nobel Prize
The chemist and physicist is most famous for her pioneering work in the field of radioactivity.
She discovered the chemical element polonium in 1898, which she named after her native country Poland. Together with her husband Pierre, the duo announced the existence of another element—radium. In 1903, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work.
Curie received her second Nobel Prize in 1911, making her the only person to win in two different science fields (physics and chemistry). Her work was crucial in the development of x-rays in surgery. (Bettmann/Corbis)
1912: Girl Scouts of America is founded
Juliette Gordon Low started the all-girls club in Savannah, Georgia, with the aim of promoting social welfare by encouraging members to participate in community service and outdoor activities.
Among the many famous girl scouts alumni are: Lucille Ball, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Nancy Reagan and Gloria Steinem.
Today the organization has around 3.7 million members. (Bettmann/Corbis)
1920: Women in the U.S. are given the right to vote
On August 18, 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment of the Constitution was ratified, guaranteeing all American women the right to vote.
It was a major victory for advocates of women's rights, who had been campaigning for women's suffrage for decades. (Bettman/Corbis)
1932: Amelia Earhart flies solo across the Atlantic
Amelia Earhart set many aviation records and became the first woman to receive the Distinguished Flying Cross. A ten-minute flight in 1920 forged her passion for flying.
After completing her first solo bid across the Atlantic, Earhart's next ambition focused on becoming the first woman to fly around the world. On June 1, 1937 she and a companion set off in a twin-engine Lockheed Electra from Miami and landed in Lae, New Guinea, 28 days later. They departed Lae on July 2 towards Howland Island, 2,556 miles away. They never arrived.
The cause of their disappearance is unknown but many believe that the aircraft ran out of fuel and crashed. Today, Earhart's legacy lives on and she is generally regarded as a feminist icon. (Bettman/Corbis)
1942: Women serve in the armed forces during World War II
The U.S. Army established the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (later known as Women's Army Corps, WAC) and recruited around 150,000 women in roles such as radio operators, mechanics and laboratory technicians during World War II.
In 1978, the WAC was disestablished by an act of Congress, as a means to assimilate women more closely into the structure of the Army. (Swim Ink 2, LLC/Corbis)
1955: Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery, Alabama
Parks was arrested and charged with violating a city ordinance that segregated passengers by race. This sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which lasted 381 days, until segregation on buses ended.
Park's protests played an important role in raising awareness of African American civil rights. (Corbis)
1966: National Organization for Women (NOW) is founded by Betty Goldstein Friedan
The National Organization for Women was founded in Washington, D.C. by 28 women and men with the aim to "to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society."
Today, NOW is the largest and most comprehensive feminist advocacy group in the United States. (Bettman Corbis)
1973: American tennis champion Billie Jean King defeats champion player Bobby Riggs in a "Battle of the Sexes" match
In 1973, Riggs, a former World No. 1 player, challenged King to a match that promoters dubbed 'Battle of the Sexes'. He vowed that a top female player would not be able to beat him.
Watched by an estimated 50 million people in 37 countries, King beat Riggs in three straight sets. The match brought women's tennis into the limelight.
Today, King continues to champion for women's rights in sports. (Bettman/Corbis)
1983: Sally Ride becomes the first American woman in space
Ride joined NASA in 1978 after answering a newspaper ad seeking applicants for the space program.
In June 1983, she and four other astronauts made the historical six-day flight on the space shuttle Challenger.
To date, around 41 women in the US have flown into orbit. (Bettman/Corbis)
1994 Congress passes the Violence Against Women Act
The Violence Against Women Act is a landmark piece of legislation that sought to improve criminal justice and community-based responses to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault and stalking in the United States. It was passed with an unprecedented $1.6 billion dollar budget.
In 2005, Congress reauthorized the act and expanded the scope of the bill to include the protection of child victims and immigrants. (Mark Peterson/Corbis)
2007: Nancy Pelosi becomes the first female speaker of House of Representatives
On January 27, 1967, tragedy struck the Apollo program when a flash fire occurred in command module 012 during a launch pad test of the Apollo/Saturn space vehicle being prepared for the first piloted flight, the AS-204 mission. Three astronauts, Lt. Col. Virgil I. Grissom, a veteran of Mercury and Gemini missions Lt. Col. Edward H. White, the astronaut who had performed the first United States extravehicular activity during the Gemini program and Roger B. Chaffee, an astronaut preparing for his first space flight, died in this tragic accident.
A seven-member board, under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center Director, Dr. Floyd L. Thompson, conducted a comprehensive investigation to pinpoint the cause of the fire. The final report, completed in April 1967 was subsequently submitted to the NASA Administrator. The report presented the results of the investigation and made specific recommendations that led to major design and engineering modifications, and revisions to test planning, test discipline, manufacturing processes and procedures, and quality control. With these changes, the overall safety of the command and service module and the lunar module was increased substantially. The AS-204 mission was redesignated Apollo I in honor of the crew.
In addition, Mary C. White (no relation to Ed White) has written detailed biographies of the three crew members. Click here for her introduction, Roger Chaffee biography, Gus Grissom biography, Ed White biography, or Epilogue.
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27 June 1942 - History
Landmark Productions presents the world premiere of Deirdre Kinahan’s blistering new play. Louise Lowe directs Marie Mullen and Brian Gleeson in three performances which will be broadcast live, using the beautiful The Everyman auditorium as a backdrop.
To The Lighthouse
Hatch Theatre Company and The Everyman in association with Pavilion Theatre and Cork Midsummer Festival present he world premiere of a major new adaptation by Marina Carr directed for the stage by Annabelle Comyn and digitally captured for a unique broadcast event.
A Ghost In The Throat - A Live Reading
Drawing on the award-winning book A Ghost in the Throat, Doireann Ní Ghríofa presents a live reading with accompanying visuals by filmmaker Tadhg O'Sullivan and a soundscape by composer Linda Buckley. The reading will be broadcast from The Everyman stage.
The Day-Crossing Farm
A multi-sensory art installation by visual artist Marie Brett with live performance in a secret Cork City location, exploring issues of human trafficking, modern-day-slavery and drug farming.
27 June 1942 - History
Since its inception as the Strictly Stock Division, what is now the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series has evolved into one of the most popular sports in the world. In the beginning, the race cars were driven off the street and onto the track, but as safety technology advanced, changes were made to cars, as the racing machines of today are more complicated and technological than ever. NASCAR has grown with the series from the small organization formed on the sands of Daytona Beach to a thriving sport.
Below are some key milestones in the history of NASCAR:
DECEMBER 14, 1947 – Bill France Sr. organizes a meeting at the Streamline Hotel in Daytona Beach, Fla., to discuss the future of stock car racing. NASCAR, the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, is conceived.
FEBRUARY 15, 1948 – NASCAR runs its first race in Daytona Beach at the beach road course. Red Byron wins in a Ford.
JUNE 19, 1949 – The first NASCAR “Strictly Stock” (current Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series) race is held at Charlotte (N.C.) Fairgrounds Speedway. Jim Roper wins the race, Bob Flock wins the first pole and Sara Christian, who finishes 14th, is credited as the first woman to race in NASCAR’s premier division.
OCTOBER 16, 1949 – Red Byron wins the first NASCAR Strictly Stock championship.
1959 – Jim France, son of Bill France Sr., joins the staff at International Speedway Corporation (ISC). He worked in all phases of operation in his early years of the company and moved up to serve as vice chairman/executive vice president of NASCAR before ultimately being named Chairman.
FEBRUARY 22, 1959 – The high-banked 2.5-mile Daytona International Speedway hosts the first Daytona 500. More than 41,000 fans are in attendance for the inaugural event in which the winner isn’t decided until 61 hours after the checkered flag flies, as the result of a dramatic photo finish. Lee Petty is declared the winner by two feet after conclusive evidence from a newsreel is reviewed by Bill France Sr.
DECEMBER 1, 1963 – Wendell Scott becomes the first African-American to win a race in NASCAR’s premier series, beating Buck Baker at Jacksonville (Fla.) Speedway.
1970 – Lesa France Kennedy, daughter of Bill France Jr., joins the staff at International Speedway Corporation (ISC). Instrumental in the growth of ISC and the advancement of motorsports, she has moved up to serve as vice chairperson of NASCAR and vice chairperson of the Board of Directors for ISC.
JANUARY 10, 1972 – The founder of NASCAR, Bill France Sr., hands over the reins of leadership to his son Bill France Jr., who becomes the second president in NASCAR’s history.
FEBRUARY 20, 1977 – Janet Guthrie becomes the first woman to compete in the Daytona 500. She qualifies 39th and finishes 12th.
FEBRUARY 18, 1979 – CBS presents the first live flag-to-flag coverage of a 500-mile NASCAR event with the Daytona 500, a show not soon to be forgotten as Richard Petty avoids an incident between Cale Yarborough and Donnie Allison on the last lap to win the race. With Petty racing by to take the checkered flag, Yarborough, Donnie Allison and Bobby Allison are involved in a fight in the infield grass, between Turns 3 and 4.
NOVEMBER 18, 1979 – Richard Petty wins his record seventh series championship.
JULY 4, 1984 – Richard Petty earns his 200th win in the Firecracker 400 at Daytona International Speedway, setting a mark that has yet to be challenged.
NOVEMBER 15, 1992 – One of the most significant races in NASCAR history, the 1992 season finale at Atlanta Motor Speedway. It is Richard Petty’s last race and Jeff Gordon’s first in NASCAR premier series competition. Five drivers are eligible to win the title as the race began. Driver-owner Alan Kulwicki ends up leading one more lap than Bill Elliott, to earn the five-point bonus for leading the most laps – and win the championship by 10 points.
AUGUST 6, 1994 – The series schedule expands to include the famed 2.5-mile Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Jeff Gordon claims the win in the first Brickyard 400.
OCTOBER 23, 1994 – Dale Earnhardt joins Richard Petty as the second driver in series history to win seven NASCAR series championships clinching the title at Rockingham, N.C.
JANUARY 2003 – NASCAR unveils the NASCAR Research and Development Center in Concord, N.C.
2004 – NASCAR begins its first season under the banner of Nextel, with the series becoming known as the NASCAR NEXTEL Cup (now the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup) Series. A new format is implemented to determine the series champion and is known as the Chase for the NASCAR NEXTEL Cup (now Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series Playoffs).
MAY 23, 2010 – The inaugural NASCAR Hall of Fame class is inducted in Charlotte, N.C.: Bill France Sr., Bill France Jr., Richard Petty, Dale Earnhardt and Junior Johnson.
FEBRUARY 17, 2013 – Danica Patrick makes history by winning the Busch Pole Award for the 2013 Daytona 500, becoming the first female to win a pole in NASCAR premier series history.
JANUARY 30, 2014 – NASCAR Chairman Brian France announces championship format change, virtually guaranteeing a berth in the NASCAR playoffs for each race winner. Key among the changes is a ‘Championship 4’ finale where the highest finisher among the four eligible drivers at Homestead-Miami Speedway would be crowned champion.
NOVEMBER 20, 2016 – Jimmie Johnson makes history with his record-tying seventh NASCAR premier series title joining NASCAR Hall of Famers Richard Petty and Dale Earnhardt as the series leaders with seven championships.
DECEMBER 1, 2016 – NASCAR and Monster Energy announce a multi-year agreement for the premier series entitlement as well as the prestigious annual NASCAR All-Star Race. Monster Energy, began its tenure as naming rights partner on Jan. 1, 2017, will become only the third company to serve as the entitlement sponsor in NASCAR premier series history, following RJ Reynolds and Sprint/Nextel.
2017 –NASCAR introduces a new three-stage format of racing across all three national series racing. On the eve of Daytona Speedweeks, Kennedy unveils a flagship tenant, Bass Pro Shops, at ISC’s ONE DAYTONA, a 300,000-square foot premier mixed-use and entertainment destination across the street from Daytona.
APRIL 27, 2018 – In a move designed to strengthen a relationship that dates back more than 60 years, NASCAR announces the acquisition of the Automobile Racing Club of America. Both NASCAR and ARCA, a Midwest-based sanctioning body for stock car auto racing, share a long history: ARCA founder John Marcum raced against Bill France Sr. and worked as a NASCAR official. More recently, the series has provided a valuable platform for talented drivers looking to make it to NASCAR’s national series.
2018 –Jim France, who joined ISC in 1959, assumes the role of NASCAR Chairman and CEO. He was elected to the ISC board in 1970 and has served as the company’s secretary, assistant treasurer, vice president, chief operating officer, executive vice president and president. He grew up in the early years of stock car racing, living and learning every detail of the sport from his own experiences, and from his father Bill France Sr., the founder and first president of NASCAR, and brother Bill Jr., NASCAR’s former president, chairman and CEO.
**While the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History exhibition spaces will partially open to the public on June 18th, our collections remain closed to most staff and all researchers, and the museum’s COVID-19 loan moratorium remains in effect. Currently, there is no capacity to accommodate collections activities including visits, image requests, loans, and shipments. While there is no current date set for when on-site collections activities will resume, we will update as soon as this changes.**
The United States National Herbarium was founded in 1848, when the first collections were accessioned from the United States Exploring Expedition (50,000 specimens of 10,000 species). Current holdings total 5 million specimens, making this collection among the ten largest in the world representing about 8% of the plant collection resources of the United States. The herbarium is especially rich in type specimens (@110,000).
Women of the US National Herbarium
Further Your Research
The plant collections of the Department of Botany are among the most important worldwide. This vast and intensely managed collection of over 5 million specimens represents a premier national and international resource.
27 June 1942 - History
MIA: History: Soviet History: Great Patriotic War
The Nazi invasion of the USSR in June 1941 heralded the beginning of the most titanic battle in the history of humanity. The war ended in complete defeat for Nazi Germany less than four years later with the fall of Berlin on May 9, 1945. Over 20,000,000 Soviet citizens and soldiers died in the struggle to liberate the Motherland from the fascist aggressors.
Special Collection: The Partisan Resistance
⊙ Before the War
Leon Trotsky on the Rise of German Fascism
A complete collection of Trotsky's writings on Germany covering the years 1930 through 1940.
Dimitrov versus Göbbels Georgi Dimitrov (March 1933 — February 1934)
Letters, writings and transcripts from courtroom hearings from the period of Dimitrov's trial in fascist Germany
Unity of the Working Class against Fascism Georgi Dimitrov (August 13, 1935)
Concluding speech before the Seventh World Congress of the Communist International
Youth Against Fascism Georgi Dimitrov (September 25, 1935)
The People's Front Georgi Dimitrov (December 1935)
Fascism is War Georgi Dimitrov (July 18, 1936)
The Meaning of the Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact (pdf) V. Molotov (August 1939)
Soviet Peace Policy (pdf * ) V. Molotov (August 1939 - August 1940)
The Russo-German Alliance: August 1939 – June 1941, 1949
⊙ 1941: Invasion
The attack by fascist Germany Mobilization of resources Birth of the partisan resistance Creation of the Anti-Hitler Coalition The fall of Smolensk The seige of Leningrad begins The defense of Moscow.
Radio Address (pdf) Vyacheslav Molotov (June 22, 1941)
On June 22, 1941 the German Wehrmacht rolled into the Soviet Union. Later that day, V. M. Molotov, People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs, took to the airwaves to inform the Soviet people of the German invasion.
"Liberation France is Linked Victory Soviet Union" Maurice Thorez (June 25, 1941)
On June 22, 1941 the Wehrmacht rolled into the Soviet Union. Three days later Thorez and long-time party leader André Marty sent the following telegram to Jacques Duclos, who is responsible for the Party within France.
Radio Broadcast J.V. Stalin (July 3, 1941)
Russia on the March: a study of Soviet Foreign Policy J. T. Murphy (June, 1941)
"I had just received the proofs of this book when, with dramatic suddenness, Hitler and his gangsters opened up a new phase of the world war. Without preliminary negotiation or warning their air forces dropped their bombs and their armies crashed across the frontiers of Soviet Russia." — J.T. Murphy
Speech at Celebration Meeting of the Moscow Soviet J.V. Stalin (November 6, 1941)
Speech at the Red Army Parade on the Red Square, Moscow J.V. Stalin (November 7, 1941)
⊙ 1942: The War Escalates
Renewal of the German offensive The Battle of Stalingrad begins The defense of the Caucasus.
⊙ 1943: The Turning Point
"The Road of Life" opened at Leningrad Dissolution of the Communist International Victory at Stalingrad The Battle of Kursk The liberations of Smolensk, Khrakov, Donbass, and Eastern Ukraine and Belorussia.
⊙ 1944: Counterattack
The Red Army's drive into Eastern Europe and Germany Liberation of the Baltic states The seige of Leningrad is lifted Liberation of the Russian Federation.
⊙ 1945: Victory
The Yalta Conference Liberation of Auschwitz (Birkenau), Stutthof, Sachsenhausen, and Ravensbrueck concentration camps, Liberation of Poland, Hungary and Austria The Fall of Berlin.